DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages
CA.PL(1) OpenSSL CA.PL(1)
CA.pl - friendlier interface for OpenSSL certificate programs
CA.pl [-?] [-h] [-help] [-newcert] [-newreq] [-newreq-nodes] [-newca]
[-xsign] [-sign] [-signreq] [-signcert] [-verify] [files]
The CA.pl script is a perl script that supplies the relevant command
line arguments to the openssl command for some common certificate
operations. It is intended to simplify the process of certificate
creation and management by the use of some simple options.
?, -h, -help
prints a usage message.
creates a new self signed certificate. The private key is written
to the file "newkey.pem" and the request written to the file
creates a new certificate request. The private key is written to
the file "newkey.pem" and the request written to the file
is like -newreq except that the private key will not be encrypted.
creates a new CA hierarchy for use with the ca program (or the
-signcert and -xsign options). The user is prompted to enter the
filename of the CA certificates (which should also contain the
private key) or by hitting ENTER details of the CA will be prompted
for. The relevant files and directories are created in a directory
called "demoCA" in the current directory.
create a PKCS#12 file containing the user certificate, private key
and CA certificate. It expects the user certificate and private key
to be in the file "newcert.pem" and the CA certificate to be in the
file demoCA/cacert.pem, it creates a file "newcert.p12". This
command can thus be called after the -sign option. The PKCS#12 file
can be imported directly into a browser. If there is an additional
argument on the command line it will be used as the "friendly name"
for the certificate (which is typically displayed in the browser
list box), otherwise the name "My Certificate" is used.
-sign, -signreq, -xsign
calls the ca program to sign a certificate request. It expects the
request to be in the file "newreq.pem". The new certificate is
written to the file "newcert.pem" except in the case of the -xsign
option when it is written to standard output.
this option is the same as the -signreq option except it uses the
configuration file section v3_ca and so makes the signed request a
valid CA certificate. This is useful when creating intermediate CA
from a root CA.
this option is the same as -sign except it expects a self signed
certificate to be present in the file "newreq.pem".
verifies certificates against the CA certificate for "demoCA". If
no certificates are specified on the command line it tries to
verify the file "newcert.pem".
one or more optional certificate file names for use with the
Create a CA hierarchy:
Complete certificate creation example: create a CA, create a request,
sign the request and finally create a PKCS#12 file containing it.
CA.pl -pkcs12 "My Test Certificate"
Although the CA.pl creates RSA CAs and requests it is still possible to
use it with DSA certificates and requests using the req(1) command
directly. The following example shows the steps that would typically be
Create some DSA parameters:
openssl dsaparam -out dsap.pem 1024
Create a DSA CA certificate and private key:
openssl req -x509 -newkey dsa:dsap.pem -keyout cacert.pem -out cacert.pem
Create the CA directories and files:
enter cacert.pem when prompted for the CA file name.
Create a DSA certificate request and private key (a different set of
parameters can optionally be created first):
openssl req -out newreq.pem -newkey dsa:dsap.pem
Sign the request:
Most of the filenames mentioned can be modified by editing the CA.pl
If the demoCA directory already exists then the -newca command will not
overwrite it and will do nothing. This can happen if a previous call
using the -newca option terminated abnormally. To get the correct
behaviour delete the demoCA directory if it already exists.
Under some environments it may not be possible to run the CA.pl script
directly (for example Win32) and the default configuration file
location may be wrong. In this case the command:
perl -S CA.pl
can be used and the OPENSSL_CONF environment variable changed to point
to the correct path of the configuration file "openssl.cnf".
The script is intended as a simple front end for the openssl program
for use by a beginner. Its behaviour isn't always what is wanted. For
more control over the behaviour of the certificate commands call the
openssl command directly.
The variable OPENSSL_CONF if defined allows an alternative
configuration file location to be specified, it should contain the full
path to the configuration file, not just its directory.
x509(1), ca(1), req(1), pkcs12(1), config(5)
1.0.2h 2016-05-03 CA.PL(1)