TIME2POSIX(3) DragonFly Library Functions Manual TIME2POSIX(3)## NAME

time2posix,posix2time-- convert seconds since the Epoch## LIBRARY

Standard C Library (libc, -lc)## SYNOPSIS

#include<time.h>time_ttime2posix(time_tt);time_tposix2time(time_tt);## DESCRIPTION

IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (``POSIX.1'') legislates that a time_t value of 536457599 shall correspond to "Wed Dec 31 23:59:59 UTC 1986." This effectively implies that POSIX time_t's cannot include leap seconds and, therefore, that the system time must be adjusted as each leap occurs. If the time package is configured with leap-second support enabled, how- ever, no such adjustment is needed and time_t values continue to increase over leap events (as a true `seconds since...' value). This means that these values will differ from those required by POSIX by the net number of leap seconds inserted since the Epoch. Typically this is not a problem as the type time_t is intended to be (mostly) opaque--time_t values should only be obtained-from and passed-to functions such as time(3), localtime(3), mktime(3) and difftime(3). How- ever, IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (``POSIX.1'') gives an arithmetic expression for directly computing a time_t value from a given date/time, and the same relationship is assumed by some (usually older) applications. Any programs creating/dissecting time_t's using such a relationship will typ- ically not handle intervals over leap seconds correctly. Thetime2posix() andposix2time() functions are provided to address this time_t mismatch by converting between local time_t values and their POSIX equivalents. This is done by accounting for the number of time-base changes that would have taken place on a POSIX system as leap seconds were inserted or deleted. These converted values can then be used in lieu of correcting the older applications, or when communicating with POSIX-compliant systems. Thetime2posix() function is single-valued. That is, every local time_t corresponds to a single POSIX time_t. Theposix2time() function is less well-behaved: for a positive leap second hit the result is not unique, and for a negative leap second hit the corresponding POSIX time_t does not exist so an adjacent value is returned. Both of these are good indi- cators of the inferiority of the POSIX representation. The following table summarizes the relationship between time_t and its conversion to, and back from, the POSIX representation over the leap sec- ond inserted at the end of June, 1993.DATETIMETX=time2posix(T)posix2time(X)93/06/30 23:59:59 A+0 B+0 A+0 93/06/30 23:59:60 A+1 B+1 A+1 or A+2 93/07/01 00:00:00 A+2 B+1 A+1 or A+2 93/07/01 00:00:01 A+3 B+2 A+3 A leap second deletion would look like...DATETIMETX=time2posix(T)posix2time(X)??/06/30 23:59:58 A+0 B+0 A+0 ??/07/01 00:00:00 A+1 B+2 A+1 ??/07/01 00:00:01 A+2 B+3 A+2 [Note: posix2time(B+1) => A+0 or A+1] If leap-second support is not enabled, local time_t's and POSIX time_t's are equivalent, and bothtime2posix() andposix2time() degenerate to the identity function.## SEE ALSO

difftime(3), localtime(3), mktime(3), time(3) DragonFly 3.9 October 19, 2008 DragonFly 3.9