DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages


SYSCTL(3)	      DragonFly Library Functions Manual	     SYSCTL(3)

NAME

sysctl, sysctlbyname, sysctlnametomib -- get or set system information

LIBRARY

Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/sysctl.h> int sysctl(const int *name, u_int namelen, void *oldp, size_t *oldlenp, const void *newp, size_t newlen); int sysctlbyname(const char *name, void *oldp, size_t *oldlenp, const void *newp, size_t newlen); int sysctlnametomib(const char *name, int *mibp, size_t *sizep);

DESCRIPTION

The sysctl() function retrieves system information and allows processes with appropriate privileges to set system information. The information available from sysctl() consists of integers, strings, and tables. Information may be retrieved and set from the command interface using the sysctl(8) utility. Unless explicitly noted below, sysctl() returns a consistent snapshot of the data requested. Consistency is obtained by locking the destination buffer into memory so that the data may be copied out without blocking. Calls to sysctl() are serialized to avoid deadlock. The state is described using a ``Management Information Base'' (MIB) style name, listed in name, which is a namelen length array of integers. The sysctlbyname() function accepts an ASCII representation of the name and internally looks up the integer name vector. Apart from that, it behaves the same as the standard sysctl() function. The information is copied into the buffer specified by oldp. The size of the buffer is given by the location specified by oldlenp before the call, and that location gives the amount of data copied after a successful call and after a call that returns with the error code ENOMEM. If the amount of data available is greater than the size of the buffer supplied, the call supplies as much data as fits in the buffer provided and returns with the error code ENOMEM. If the old value is not desired, oldp and oldlenp should be set to NULL. The size of the available data can be determined by calling sysctl() with a NULL parameter for oldp. The size of the available data will be returned in the location pointed to by oldlenp. For some operations, the amount of space may change often. For these operations, the system attempts to round up so that the returned size is large enough for a call to return the data shortly thereafter. To set a new value, newp is set to point to a buffer of length newlen from which the requested value is to be taken. If a new value is not to be set, newp should be set to NULL and newlen set to 0. The sysctlnametomib() function accepts an ASCII representation of the name, looks up the integer name vector, and returns the numeric represen- tation in the mib array pointed to by mibp. The number of elements in the mib array is given by the location specified by sizep before the call, and that location gives the number of entries copied after a suc- cessful call. The resulting mib and size may be used in subsequent sysctl() calls to get the data associated with the requested ASCII name. This interface is intended for use by applications that want to repeat- edly request the same variable (the sysctl() function runs in about a third the time as the same request made via the sysctlbyname() function). The sysctlnametomib() function is also useful for fetching mib prefixes and then adding a final component. For example, to fetch process infor- mation for processes with pid's less than 100: int i, mib[4]; size_t len; struct kinfo_proc kp; /* Fill out the first three components of the mib */ len = 4; sysctlnametomib("kern.proc.pid", mib, &len); /* Fetch and print entries for pid's < 100 */ for (i = 0; i < 100; i++) { mib[3] = i; len = sizeof(kp); if (sysctl(mib, 4, &kp, &len, NULL, 0) == -1) perror("sysctl"); else if (len > 0) printkproc(&kp); } The top level names are defined with a CTL_ prefix in <sys/sysctl.h>, and are as follows. The next and subsequent levels down are found in the include files listed here, and described in separate sections below. Name Next level names Description CTL_DEBUG sys/sysctl.h Debugging CTL_VFS sys/mount.h Filesystem CTL_HW sys/sysctl.h Generic CPU, I/O CTL_KERN sys/sysctl.h High kernel limits CTL_MACHDEP sys/sysctl.h Machine dependent CTL_NET sys/socket.h Networking CTL_USER sys/sysctl.h User-level CTL_VM vm/vm_param.h Virtual memory For example, the following retrieves the maximum number of processes allowed in the system: int mib[2], maxproc; size_t len; mib[0] = CTL_KERN; mib[1] = KERN_MAXPROC; len = sizeof(maxproc); sysctl(mib, 2, &maxproc, &len, NULL, 0); To retrieve the standard search path for the system utilities: int mib[2]; size_t len; char *p; mib[0] = CTL_USER; mib[1] = USER_CS_PATH; sysctl(mib, 2, NULL, &len, NULL, 0); p = malloc(len); sysctl(mib, 2, p, &len, NULL, 0); CTL_DEBUG The debugging variables vary from system to system. A debugging variable may be added or deleted without need to recompile sysctl() to know about it. Each time it runs, sysctl() gets the list of debugging variables from the kernel and displays their current values. The system defines twenty (struct ctldebug) variables named debug0 through debug19. They are declared as separate variables so that they can be individually ini- tialized at the location of their associated variable. The loader pre- vents multiple use of the same variable by issuing errors if a variable is initialized in more than one place. For example, to export the vari- able dospecialcheck as a debugging variable, the following declaration would be used: int dospecialcheck = 1; struct ctldebug debug5 = { "dospecialcheck", &dospecialcheck }; CTL_VFS A distinguished second level name, VFS_GENERIC, is used to get general information about all filesystems. One of its third level identifiers is VFS_MAXTYPENUM that gives the highest valid filesystem type number. Its other third level identifier is VFS_CONF that returns configuration information about the filesystem type given as a fourth level identifier (see getvfsbyname(3) as an example of its use). The remaining second level identifiers are the filesystem type number returned by a statfs(2) call or from VFS_CONF. The third level identifiers available for each filesystem are given in the header file that defines the mount argument structure for that filesystem. CTL_HW The string and integer information available for the CTL_HW level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value. Second level name Type Changeable HW_MACHINE string no HW_MODEL string no HW_NCPU integer no HW_BYTEORDER integer no HW_PHYSMEM integer no HW_USERMEM integer no HW_PAGESIZE integer no HW_FLOATINGPOINT integer no HW_MACHINE_ARCH string no HW_SENSORS node not applicable HW_MACHINE The machine class. HW_MODEL The machine model HW_NCPU The number of cpus. HW_BYTEORDER The byteorder (4,321, or 1,234). HW_PHYSMEM The bytes of physical memory. HW_USERMEM The bytes of non-kernel memory. HW_PAGESIZE The software page size. HW_FLOATINGPOINT Nonzero if the floating point support is in hardware. HW_MACHINE_ARCH The machine dependent architecture type. HW_SENSORS Third level comprises an array of struct sensordev structures containing information about devices that may attach hardware monitoring sensors. Third, fourth and fifth levels together comprise an array of struct sensor structures containing snapshot readings of hardware monitoring sensors. In such usage, third level indicates the numerical representation of the sensor device name to which the sensor is attached (device's xname and number shall be matched with the help of struct sensordev structure above), fourth level indicates sensor type and fifth level is an ordinal sensor number (unique to the specified sensor type on the specified sensor device). The sensordev and sensor structures and sensor_type enumeration are defined in <sys/sensors.h>. CTL_KERN The string and integer information available for the CTL_KERN level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value. The types of data currently available are process information, system vnodes, the open file entries, routing table entries, virtual memory statistics, load average history, and clock rate information. Second level name Type Changeable KERN_ARGMAX integer no KERN_BOOTFILE string yes KERN_BOOTTIME struct timeval no KERN_CLOCKRATE struct clockinfo no KERN_FILE struct file no KERN_HOSTID integer yes KERN_HOSTNAME string yes KERN_JOB_CONTROL integer no KERN_MAXFILES integer yes KERN_MAXFILESPERPROC integer yes KERN_MAXPOSIXLOCKSPERUID integer yes KERN_MAXPROC integer no KERN_MAXPROCPERUID integer yes KERN_MAXVNODES integer yes KERN_NGROUPS integer no KERN_NISDOMAINNAME string yes KERN_OSRELDATE integer no KERN_OSRELEASE string no KERN_OSREV integer no KERN_OSTYPE string no KERN_POSIX1 integer no KERN_PROC struct proc no KERN_PROF node not applicable KERN_QUANTUM integer yes KERN_SAVED_IDS integer no KERN_SECURELVL integer raise only KERN_UPDATEINTERVAL integer no KERN_VERSION string no KERN_VNODE struct vnode no KERN_ARGMAX The maximum bytes of argument to execve(2). KERN_BOOTFILE The full pathname of the file from which the kernel was loaded. KERN_BOOTTIME A struct timeval structure is returned. This structure contains the time that the system was booted. KERN_CLOCKRATE A struct clockinfo structure is returned. This structure con- tains the clock, statistics clock and profiling clock frequen- cies, the number of micro-seconds per hz tick and the skew rate. KERN_FILE Return the entire file table. The returned data consists of a single struct filehead followed by an array of struct file, whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system. KERN_HOSTID Get or set the host id. KERN_HOSTNAME Get or set the hostname. KERN_JOB_CONTROL Return 1 if job control is available on this system, otherwise 0. KERN_MAXFILES The maximum number of files that may be open in the system. KERN_MAXFILESPERPROC The maximum number of files that may be open for a single process. This limit only applies to processes with an effective uid of nonzero at the time of the open request. Files that have already been opened are not affected if the limit or the effec- tive uid is changed. KERN_MAXPROC The maximum number of concurrent processes the system will allow. KERN_MAXPROCPERUID The maximum number of concurrent processes the system will allow for a single effective uid. This limit only applies to processes with an effective uid of nonzero at the time of a fork request. Processes that have already been started are not affected if the limit is changed. KERN_MAXVNODES The maximum number of vnodes available on the system. KERN_NGROUPS The maximum number of supplemental groups. KERN_NISDOMAINNAME The name of the current YP/NIS domain. KERN_OSRELDATE The system release date in YYYYMM format (January 1996 is encoded as 199601). KERN_OSRELEASE The system release string. KERN_OSREV The system revision string. KERN_OSTYPE The system type string. KERN_POSIX1 The version of IEEE Std 1003.1 (``POSIX.1'') with which the sys- tem attempts to comply. KERN_PROC Return selected information about specific running processes. For the following names, an array of struct kinfo_proc structures is returned, whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system. Third level name Fourth level is: KERN_PROC_ALL None KERN_PROC_PID A process ID KERN_PROC_PGRP A process group KERN_PROC_TTY A tty device KERN_PROC_UID A user ID KERN_PROC_RUID A real user ID Adding the flag KERN_PROC_FLAG_LWP to the third level name sig- nals that information about all light weight processes of the selected processes should be returned. KERN_PROC_PATHNAME, the path of the process' text file is stored. For KERN_PROC_PATHNAME, a process ID of -1 implies the current process. Third level name Fourth level is: KERN_PROC_ARGS A process ID KERN_PROC_PATHNAME A process ID KERN_PROF Return profiling information about the kernel. If the kernel is not compiled for profiling, attempts to retrieve any of the KERN_PROF values will fail with ENOENT. The third level names for the string and integer profiling information is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appro- priate privilege may change the value. Third level name Type Changeable GPROF_STATE integer yes GPROF_COUNT u_short[] yes GPROF_FROMS u_short[] yes GPROF_TOS struct tostruct yes GPROF_GMONPARAM struct gmonparam no The variables are as follows: GPROF_STATE Returns GMON_PROF_ON or GMON_PROF_OFF to show that pro- filing is running or stopped. GPROF_COUNT Array of statistical program counter counts. GPROF_FROMS Array indexed by program counter of call-from points. GPROF_TOS Array of struct tostruct describing destination of calls and their counts. GPROF_GMONPARAM Structure giving the sizes of the above arrays. KERN_QUANTUM The maximum period of time, in microseconds, for which a process is allowed to run without being preempted if other processes are in the run queue. KERN_SAVED_IDS Returns 1 if saved set-group and saved set-user ID is available. KERN_SECURELVL The system security level. This level may be raised by processes with appropriate privilege. It may not be lowered. KERN_VERSION The system version string. KERN_VNODE Return the entire vnode table. Note, the vnode table is not nec- essarily a consistent snapshot of the system. The returned data consists of an array whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system. Each element of the array contains the kernel address of a vnode struct vnode * followed by the vnode itself struct vnode. CTL_MACHDEP The set of variables defined is architecture dependent. The following variables are defined for the i386 architecture. Second level name Type Changeable CPU_CONSDEV dev_t no CPU_ADJKERNTZ int yes CPU_DISRTCSET int yes CPU_BOOTINFO struct bootinfo no CPU_WALLCLOCK int yes CTL_NET The string and integer information available for the CTL_NET level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value. Second level name Type Changeable PF_ROUTE routing messages no PF_INET IPv4 values yes PF_INET6 IPv6 values yes PF_ROUTE Return the entire routing table or a subset of it. The data is returned as a sequence of routing messages (see route(4) for the header file, format and meaning). The length of each message is contained in the message header. The third level name is a protocol number, which is currently always 0. The fourth level name is an address family, which may be set to 0 to select all address families. The fifth and sixth level names are as follows: Fifth level name Sixth level is: NET_RT_FLAGS rtflags NET_RT_DUMP None NET_RT_IFLIST None PF_INET Get or set various global information about the IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). The third level name is the protocol. The fourth level name is the variable name. The currently defined protocols and names are: Protocol Variable Type Changeable icmp bmcastecho integer yes icmp maskrepl integer yes ip forwarding integer yes ip redirect integer yes ip ttl integer yes udp checksum integer yes The variables are as follows: icmp.bmcastecho Returns 1 if an ICMP echo request to a broadcast or mul- ticast address is to be answered. icmp.maskrepl Returns 1 if ICMP network mask requests are to be answered. ip.forwarding Returns 1 when IP forwarding is enabled for the host, meaning that the host is acting as a router. ip.redirect Returns 1 when ICMP redirects may be sent by the host. This option is ignored unless the host is routing IP packets, and should normally be enabled on all systems. ip.ttl The maximum time-to-live (hop count) value for an IP packet sourced by the system. This value applies to nor- mal transport protocols, not to ICMP. udp.checksum Returns 1 when UDP checksums are being computed and checked. Disabling UDP checksums is strongly discour- aged. For variables net.inet.*.ipsec, please refer to ipsec(4). PF_INET6 Get or set various global information about the IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6). The third level name is the protocol. The fourth level name is the variable name. For variables net.inet6.* please refer to inet6(4). For vari- ables net.inet6.*.ipsec6, please refer to ipsec(4). CTL_USER The string and integer information available for the CTL_USER level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value. Second level name Type Changeable USER_BC_BASE_MAX integer no USER_BC_DIM_MAX integer no USER_BC_SCALE_MAX integer no USER_BC_STRING_MAX integer no USER_COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX integer no USER_CS_PATH string no USER_EXPR_NEST_MAX integer no USER_LINE_MAX integer no USER_POSIX2_CHAR_TERM integer no USER_POSIX2_C_BIND integer no USER_POSIX2_C_DEV integer no USER_POSIX2_FORT_DEV integer no USER_POSIX2_FORT_RUN integer no USER_POSIX2_LOCALEDEF integer no USER_POSIX2_SW_DEV integer no USER_POSIX2_UPE integer no USER_POSIX2_VERSION integer no USER_RE_DUP_MAX integer no USER_STREAM_MAX integer no USER_TZNAME_MAX integer no USER_BC_BASE_MAX The maximum ibase/obase values in the bc(1) utility. USER_BC_DIM_MAX The maximum array size in the bc(1) utility. USER_BC_SCALE_MAX The maximum scale value in the bc(1) utility. USER_BC_STRING_MAX The maximum string length in the bc(1) utility. USER_COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX The maximum number of weights that can be assigned to any entry of the LC_COLLATE order keyword in the locale definition file. USER_CS_PATH Return a value for the PATH environment variable that finds all the standard utilities. USER_EXPR_NEST_MAX The maximum number of expressions that can be nested within parenthesis by the expr(1) utility. USER_LINE_MAX The maximum length in bytes of a text-processing utility's input line. USER_POSIX2_CHAR_TERM Return 1 if the system supports at least one terminal type capa- ble of all operations described in IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''), otherwise 0. USER_POSIX2_C_BIND Return 1 if the system's C-language development facilities sup- port the C-Language Bindings Option, otherwise 0. USER_POSIX2_C_DEV Return 1 if the system supports the C-Language Development Utili- ties Option, otherwise 0. USER_POSIX2_FORT_DEV Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Development Utilities Option, otherwise 0. USER_POSIX2_FORT_RUN Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Runtime Utilities Option, otherwise 0. USER_POSIX2_LOCALEDEF Return 1 if the system supports the creation of locales, other- wise 0. USER_POSIX2_SW_DEV Return 1 if the system supports the Software Development Utili- ties Option, otherwise 0. USER_POSIX2_UPE Return 1 if the system supports the User Portability Utilities Option, otherwise 0. USER_POSIX2_VERSION The version of IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') with which the sys- tem attempts to comply. USER_RE_DUP_MAX The maximum number of repeated occurrences of a regular expres- sion permitted when using interval notation. USER_STREAM_MAX The minimum maximum number of streams that a process may have open at any one time. USER_TZNAME_MAX The minimum maximum number of types supported for the name of a timezone. CTL_VM The string and integer information available for the CTL_VM level is detailed below. The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate privilege may change the value. Second level name Type Changeable VM_LOADAVG struct loadavg no VM_METER struct vmtotal no VM_PAGEOUT_ALGORITHM integer yes VM_SWAPPING_ENABLED integer maybe VM_V_CACHE_MAX integer yes VM_V_CACHE_MIN integer yes VM_V_FREE_MIN integer yes VM_V_FREE_RESERVED integer yes VM_V_FREE_TARGET integer yes VM_V_INACTIVE_TARGET integer yes VM_V_PAGEOUT_FREE_MIN integer yes VM_LOADAVG Return the load average history. The returned data consists of a struct loadavg. VM_METER Return the system wide virtual memory statistics. The returned data consists of a struct vmtotal. VM_PAGEOUT_ALGORITHM 0 if the statistics-based page management algorithm is in use or 1 if the near-LRU algorithm is in use. VM_SWAPPING_ENABLED 1 if process swapping is enabled or 0 if disabled. This variable is permanently set to 0 if the kernel was built with swapping disabled. VM_V_CACHE_MAX Maximum desired size of the cache queue. VM_V_CACHE_MIN Minimum desired size of the cache queue. If the cache queue size falls very far below this value, the pageout daemon is awakened. VM_V_FREE_MIN Minimum amount of memory (cache memory plus free memory) required to be available before a process waiting on memory will be awak- ened. VM_V_FREE_RESERVED Processes will awaken the pageout daemon and wait for memory if the number of free and cached pages drops below this value. VM_V_FREE_TARGET The total amount of free memory (including cache memory) that the pageout daemon tries to maintain. VM_V_INACTIVE_TARGET The desired number of inactive pages that the pageout daemon should achieve when it runs. Inactive pages can be quickly inserted into process address space when needed. VM_V_PAGEOUT_FREE_MIN If the amount of free and cache memory falls below this value, the pageout daemon will enter "memory conserving mode" to avoid deadlock.

RETURN VALUES

Upon successful completion, the value 0 is returned; otherwise the value -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the error.

FILES

<sys/sysctl.h> definitions for top level identifiers, second level kernel and hardware identifiers, and user level identifiers <sys/socket.h> definitions for second level network identifiers <sys/gmon.h> definitions for third level profiling identifiers <vm/vm_param.h> definitions for second level virtual memory identi- fiers <netinet/in.h> definitions for third level IPv4/IPv6 identifiers and fourth level IPv4/v6 identifiers <netinet/icmp_var.h> definitions for fourth level ICMP identifiers <netinet/icmp6.h> definitions for fourth level ICMPv6 identifiers <netinet/udp_var.h> definitions for fourth level UDP identifiers

ERRORS

The following errors may be reported: [EFAULT] The buffer name, oldp, newp, or length pointer oldlenp contains an invalid address. [EINVAL] The name array is less than two or greater than CTL_MAXNAME. [EINVAL] A non-null newp is given and its specified length in newlen is too large or too small. [ENOMEM] The length pointed to by oldlenp is too short to hold the requested value. [ENOTDIR] The name array specifies an intermediate rather than terminal name. [EISDIR] The name array specifies a terminal name, but the actual name is not terminal. [ENOENT] The name array specifies a value that is unknown. [EPERM] An attempt is made to set a read-only value. [EPERM] A process without appropriate privilege attempts to set a value.

SEE ALSO

sysconf(3), sysctl(8)

HISTORY

The sysctl() function first appeared in 4.4BSD. DragonFly 3.9 November 24, 2013 DragonFly 3.9