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MTREE(8)	       DragonFly System Manager's Manual	      MTREE(8)

NAME

mtree -- map a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS

mtree [-LPUcdeinqrux] [-f spec] [-K keywords] [-k keywords] [-p path] [-s seed] [-X exclude-list]

DESCRIPTION

The mtree utility compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current directory against a specification read from the standard input. Messages are written to the standard output for any files whose characteristics do not match the specifications, or which are missing from either the file hierarchy or the specification. The options are as follows: -L Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy. -P Don't follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider the symbolic link itself in any comparisons. This is the default. -U Modify the owner, group and permissions of existing files to match the specification and create any missing directories or symbolic links. User, group and permissions must all be specified for miss- ing directories to be created. Corrected mismatches are not con- sidered errors. -c Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard out- put. -d Ignore everything except directory type files. -e Don't complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not in the specification. -i Indent the output 4 spaces each time a directory level is descended when create a specification with the -c option. This does not affect either the /set statements or the comment before each direc- tory. It does however affect the comment before the close of each directory. -n Do not emit pathname comments when creating a specification. Nor- mally a comment is emitted before each directory and before the close of that directory when using the -c option. -q Quiet mode. Do not complain when a ``missing'' directory cannot be created because it already exists. This occurs when the directory is a symbolic link. -r Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in the specification. -u Same as -U except a status of 2 is returned if the file hierarchy did not match the specification. -x Don't descend below mount points in the file hierarchy. -f file Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard input. -K keywords Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the current set of keywords. -k keywords Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords instead of the current set of keywords. -p path Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current directory. -s seed Display a single checksum to the standard error output that repre- sents all of the files for which the keyword cksum was specified. The checksum is seeded with the specified value. -X exclude-list The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to be excluded from the specification, one to a line. If the pattern contains a `/' character, it will be matched against entire path- names (relative to the starting directory); otherwise, it will be matched against basenames only. No comments are allowed in the exclude-list file. Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e. strings that specify values relating to files. No keywords have default values, and if a keyword has no value set, no checks based on it are performed. Currently supported keywords are as follows: cksum The checksum of the file using the default algorithm speci- fied by the cksum(1) utility. flags The file flags as a symbolic name. See chflags(1) for infor- mation on these names. If no flags are to be set the string ``none'' may be used to override the current default. ignore Ignore any file hierarchy below this file. gid The file group as a numeric value. gname The file group as a symbolic name. md5digest The MD5 message digest of the file. sha1digest The FIPS 160-1 (``SHA-1'') message digest of the file. ripemd160digest The RIPEMD160 message digest of the file. mode The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or sym- bolic value. nlink The number of hard links the file is expected to have. nochange Make sure this file or directory exists but otherwise ignore all attributes. uid The file owner as a numeric value. uname The file owner as a symbolic name. size The size, in bytes, of the file. link The file the symbolic link is expected to reference. time The last modification time of the file. type The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following: block block special device char character special device dir directory fifo fifo file regular file link symbolic link socket socket The default set of keywords are flags, gid, mode, nlink, size, link, time, and uid. There are four types of lines in a specification. The first type of line sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of the string ``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of key- word/value pairs, separated by whitespace. Keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed by a value, without whitespace characters. Once a keyword has been set, its value remains unchanged until either reset or unset. The second type of line unsets keywords and consists of the string ``/unset'', followed by whitespace, followed by one or more keywords, separated by whitespace. The third type of line is a file specification and consists of a file name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace sepa- rated keyword/value pairs. The file name may be preceded by whitespace characters. The file name may contain any of the standard file name matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``?'' or ``*''), in which case files in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that they match. Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace characters. These values override, without changing, the global value of the corresponding keyword. All paths are relative. Specifying a directory will cause subsequent files to be searched for in that directory hierarchy. Which brings us to the last type of line in a specification: a line containing only the string ``..'' causes the current directory path to ascend one level. Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark (``#'') are ignored. The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error occurred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification. A status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the -U option is used.

FILES

/etc/mtree system specification directory

EXIT STATUS

The mtree utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

EXAMPLES

To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recom- mended that mtree -K sha1digest be run on the file systems, and a copy of the results stored on a different machine, or, at least, in encrypted form. The output file itself should be digested using the md5(1) util- ity. Then, periodically, mtree and md5(1) should be run against the on- line specifications. While it is possible for the bad guys to change the on-line specifications to conform to their modified binaries, it is believed to be impractical for them to create a modified specification which has the same MD5 digest as the original. The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory hierarchies for distributions and other such things; the files in /etc/mtree were used to create almost all directories in this DragonFly distribution. To create an /etc/mtree style BSD.*.dist file, use mtree -c -d -i -n -k uname,gname,mode,nochange.

SEE ALSO

chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), md5(1), stat(2), fts(3), md5(3), chown(8)

HISTORY

The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno. The MD5 digest capability was added in FreeBSD 2.1, in response to the widespread use of programs which can spoof cksum(1). The SHA-1 and RIPEMD160 digests were added in FreeBSD 4.0, as new attacks have demonstrated weaknesses in MD5. Support for file flags was added in FreeBSD 4.0, and mostly comes from NetBSD. DragonFly 4.1 February 26, 1999 DragonFly 4.1