DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages


IP(4)		      DragonFly Kernel Interfaces Manual		 IP(4)

NAME

ip -- Internet Protocol

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> int socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto);

DESCRIPTION

IP is the transport layer protocol used by the Internet protocol family. Options may be set at the IP level when using higher-level protocols that are based on IP (such as TCP and UDP). It may also be accessed through a ``raw socket'' when developing new protocols, or special-purpose applica- tions. There are several IP-level setsockopt(2) and getsockopt(2) options. IP_OPTIONS may be used to provide IP options to be transmitted in the IP header of each outgoing packet or to examine the header options on incom- ing packets. IP options may be used with any socket type in the Internet family. The format of IP options to be sent is that specified by the IP protocol specification (RFC 791), with one exception: the list of addresses for Source Route options must include the first-hop gateway at the beginning of the list of gateways. The first-hop gateway address will be extracted from the option list and the size adjusted accordingly before use. To disable previously specified options, use a zero-length buffer: setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_OPTIONS, NULL, 0); IP_TOS and IP_TTL may be used to set the type-of-service and time-to-live fields in the IP header for SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM, and certain types of SOCK_RAW sockets. For example, int tos = IPTOS_LOWDELAY; /* see <netinet/ip.h> */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TOS, &tos, sizeof(tos)); int ttl = 60; /* max = 255 */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TTL, &ttl, sizeof(ttl)); IP_MINTTL may be used to set the minimum acceptable TTL a packet must have when received on a socket. All packets with a lower TTL are silently dropped. Works on already connected/connecting and listening sockets for RAW/UDP/TCP. It allows to implement security mechanisms described in RFC 3682 (GTSM). If the IP_RECVDSTADDR option is enabled on a SOCK_DGRAM socket, the recvmsg(2) call will return the destination IP address for a UDP data- gram. The msg_control field in the msghdr structure points to a buffer that contains a cmsghdr structure followed by the IP address. The cms- ghdr fields have the following values: cmsg_len = sizeof(struct in_addr) cmsg_level = IPPROTO_IP cmsg_type = IP_RECVDSTADDR If the IP_RECVTTL option is enabled on a SOCK_DGRAM socket, the recvmsg(2) call will return the IP TTL (time to live) field for a UDP datagram. The msg_control field in the msghdr structure points to a buf- fer that contains a cmsghdr structure followed by the TTL. The cmsghdr fields have the following values: cmsg_len = sizeof(u_char) cmsg_level = IPPROTO_IP cmsg_type = IP_RECVTTL IP_PORTRANGE may be used to set the port range used for selecting a local port number on a socket with an unspecified (zero) port number. It has the following possible values: IP_PORTRANGE_DEFAULT use the default range of values, normally IPPORT_RESERVED through IPPORT_USERRESERVED. This is adjustable through the sysctl setting: net.inet.ip.portrange.first and net.inet.ip.portrange.last. IP_PORTRANGE_HIGH use a high range of values, normally IPPORT_HIFIRSTAUTO and IPPORT_HILASTAUTO. This is adjustable through the sysctl setting: net.inet.ip.portrange.hifirst and net.inet.ip.portrange.hilast. IP_PORTRANGE_LOW use a low range of ports, which are normally restricted to privileged processes on UNIX systems. The range is normally from IPPORT_RESERVED - 1 down to IPPORT_RESERVEDSTART in descending order. This is adjustable through the sysctl setting: net.inet.ip.portrange.lowfirst and net.inet.ip.portrange.lowlast. Multicast Options IP multicasting is supported only on AF_INET sockets of type SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_RAW, and only on networks where the interface driver supports multicasting. The IP_MULTICAST_TTL option changes the time-to-live (TTL) for outgoing multicast datagrams in order to control the scope of the multicasts: u_char ttl; /* range: 0 to 255, default = 1 */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_TTL, &ttl, sizeof(ttl)); Datagrams with a TTL of 1 are not forwarded beyond the local network. Multicast datagrams with a TTL of 0 will not be transmitted on any net- work, but may be delivered locally if the sending host belongs to the destination group and if multicast loopback has not been disabled on the sending socket (see below). Multicast datagrams with TTL greater than 1 may be forwarded to other networks if a multicast router is attached to the local network. For hosts with multiple interfaces, each multicast transmission is sent from the primary network interface. The IP_MULTICAST_IF option overrides the default for subsequent transmissions from a given socket: struct in_addr addr; setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_IF, &addr, sizeof(addr)); where "addr" is the local IP address of the desired interface or INADDR_ANY to specify the default interface. An interface's local IP address and multicast capability can be obtained via the SIOCGIFCONF and SIOCGIFFLAGS ioctls. Normal applications should not need to use this option. If a multicast datagram is sent to a group to which the sending host itself belongs (on the outgoing interface), a copy of the datagram is, by default, looped back by the IP layer for local delivery. The IP_MULTICAST_LOOP option gives the sender explicit control over whether or not subsequent datagrams are looped back: u_char loop; /* 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default) */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_LOOP, &loop, sizeof(loop)); This option improves performance for applications that may have no more than one instance on a single host (such as a router daemon), by elimi- nating the overhead of receiving their own transmissions. It should gen- erally not be used by applications for which there may be more than one instance on a single host (such as a conferencing program) or for which the sender does not belong to the destination group (such as a time querying program). A multicast datagram sent with an initial TTL greater than 1 may be delivered to the sending host on a different interface from that on which it was sent, if the host belongs to the destination group on that other interface. The loopback control option has no effect on such delivery. A host must become a member of a multicast group before it can receive datagrams sent to the group. To join a multicast group, use the IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP option: struct ip_mreq mreq; setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP, &mreq, sizeof(mreq)); where mreq is the following structure: struct ip_mreq { struct in_addr imr_multiaddr; /* IP multicast address of group */ struct in_addr imr_interface; /* local IP address of interface */ } imr_interface should be INADDR_ANY to choose the default multicast inter- face, or the IP address of a particular multicast-capable interface if the host is multihomed. Membership is associated with a single inter- face; programs running on multihomed hosts may need to join the same group on more than one interface. Up to IP_MAX_MEMBERSHIPS (currently 20) memberships may be added on a single socket. To drop a membership, use: struct ip_mreq mreq; setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP, &mreq, sizeof(mreq)); where mreq contains the same values as used to add the membership. Mem- berships are dropped when the socket is closed or the process exits. Raw IP Sockets Raw IP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto(2) and recvfrom(2) calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used). If proto is 0, the default protocol IPPROTO_RAW is used for outgoing packets, and only incoming packets destined for that protocol are received. If proto is non-zero, that protocol number will be used on outgoing packets and to filter incoming packets. Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination address and the protocol number the socket is created with), unless the IP_HDRINCL option has been set. Incoming packets are received with IP header and options intact. IP_HDRINCL indicates the complete IP header is included with the data and may be used only with the SOCK_RAW type. #include <netinet/in_systm.h> #include <netinet/ip.h> int hincl = 1; /* 1 = on, 0 = off */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_HDRINCL, &hincl, sizeof(hincl)); Unlike previous BSD releases, the program must set all the fields of the IP header, including the following: ip->ip_v = IPVERSION; ip->ip_hl = hlen >> 2; ip->ip_id = 0; /* 0 means kernel set appropriate value */ ip->ip_off = offset; If the header source address is set to INADDR_ANY, the kernel will choose an appropriate address.

ERRORS

A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a data- gram with the destination address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been con- nected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a net- work address for which no network interface exists. [EACCES] when an attempt is made to create a raw IP socket by a non-privileged process. The following errors specific to IP may occur when setting or getting IP options: [EINVAL] An unknown socket option name was given. [EINVAL] The IP option field was improperly formed; an option field was shorter than the minimum value or longer than the option buffer provided.

SEE ALSO

getsockopt(2), recv(2), send(2), icmp(4), inet(4), intro(4)

HISTORY

The ip protocol appeared in 4.2BSD. DragonFly 3.9 March 3, 2001 DragonFly 3.9