DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages


IFCONFIG(8)	       DragonFly System Manager's Manual	   IFCONFIG(8)

NAME

ifconfig -- configure network interface parameters

SYNOPSIS

ifconfig [-L] [-k] [-m] interface [create] [address_family] [address [dest_address]] [parameters] ifconfig interface destroy ifconfig -a [-L] [-d] [-m] [-u] [-v] [address_family] ifconfig -l [-d] [-u] [address_family] ifconfig [-L] [-d] [-k] [-m] [-u] [-v] [-C]

DESCRIPTION

The ifconfig utility is used to assign an address to a network interface and/or configure network interface parameters. The ifconfig utility must be used at boot time to define the network address of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at a later time to redefine an interface's address or other operating parameters. The following options are available: address For the DARPA-Internet family, the address is either a host name present in the host name data base, hosts(5), or a DARPA Internet address expressed in the Internet standard ``dot notation''. It is also possible to use the CIDR notation (also known as the slash notation) to include the netmask. That is, one can specify an address like 192.168.0.1/16. For ``inet6'' family, it is also possible to specify the prefix length using the slash notation, like ::1/128. See the prefixlen parameter below for more information. The link-level (``link'') address is specified as a series of colon-separated hex digits. This can be used to e.g. set a new MAC address on an ethernet interface, though the mechanism used is not ethernet-specific. If the interface is already up when this option is used, it will be briefly brought down and then brought back up again in order to ensure that the receive filter in the underlying ethernet hardware is properly reprogrammed. address_family Specify the address family which affects interpretation of the remaining parameters. Since an interface can receive transmis- sions in differing protocols with different naming schemes, spec- ifying the address family is recommended. The address or proto- col families currently supported are ``inet'', ``inet6'', ``atalk'', and ``link''. The default is ``inet''. ``ether'' and ``lladdr'' are synonyms for ``link''. dest_address Specify the address of the correspondent on the other end of a point to point link. interface This parameter is a string of the form ``name unit'', for exam- ple, ``ed0''. The following parameters may be set with ifconfig: add Another name for the alias parameter. Introduced for compatibil- ity with BSD/OS. alias Establish an additional network address for this interface. This is sometimes useful when changing network numbers, and one wishes to accept packets addressed to the old interface. If the address is on the same subnet as the first network address for this interface, a non-conflicting netmask must be given. Usually 0xffffffff is most appropriate. -alias Remove the network address specified. This would be used if you incorrectly specified an alias, or it was no longer needed. If you have incorrectly set an NS address having the side effect of specifying the host portion, removing all NS addresses will allow you to respecify the host portion. anycast (Inet6 only.) Specify that the address configured is an anycast address. Based on the current specification, only routers may configure anycast addresses. Anycast address will not be used as source address of any of outgoing IPv6 packets. arp Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol (arp(4)) in mapping between network level addresses and link level addresses (default). This is currently implemented for mapping between DARPA Internet addresses and IEEE 802 48-bit MAC addresses (Eth- ernet, FDDI, and Token Ring addresses). -arp Disable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol (arp(4)). staticarp If the Address Resolution Protocol is enabled, the host will only reply to requests for its addresses, and will never send any requests. -staticarp If the Address Resolution Protocol is enabled, the host will per- form normally, sending out requests and listening for replies. broadcast (Inet only.) Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts to the network. The default broadcast address is the address with a host part of all 1's. debug Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this turns on extra console error logging. -debug Disable driver dependent debugging code. promisc Put interface into permanently promiscuous mode. -promisc Disable permanently promiscuous mode. delete Another name for the -alias parameter. down Mark an interface ``down''. When an interface is marked ``down'', the system will not attempt to transmit messages through that interface. If possible, the interface will be reset to disable reception as well. This action does not automatically disable routes using the interface. eui64 (Inet6 only.) Fill interface index (lowermost 64bit of an IPv6 address) automatically. media type If the driver supports the media selection system, set the media type of the interface to type. Some interfaces support the mutu- ally exclusive use of one of several different physical media connectors. For example, a 10Mbit/s Ethernet interface might support the use of either AUI or twisted pair connectors. Set- ting the media type to 10base5/AUI would change the currently active connector to the AUI port. Setting it to 10baseT/UTP would activate twisted pair. Refer to the interfaces' driver specific documentation or man page for a complete list of the available types. mediaopt opts If the driver supports the media selection system, set the speci- fied media options on the interface. The opts argument is a comma delimited list of options to apply to the interface. Refer to the interfaces' driver specific man page for a complete list of available options. -mediaopt opts If the driver supports the media selection system, disable the specified media options on the interface. mode mode If the driver supports the media selection system, set the speci- fied operating mode on the interface to mode. For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces that support multiple operating modes this directive is used to select between 802.11a (11a), 802.11b (11b), and 802.11g (11g) operating modes. name name Set the interface name to name. rss If the driver supports receive side scaling, enable receive side scaling on the interface. -rss If the driver supports receive side scaling, disable receive side scaling on the interface. rxcsum, txcsum If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading, enable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the inter- face. Some drivers may not be able to enable these flags inde- pendently of each other, so setting one may also set the other. The driver will offload as much checksum work as it can reliably support, the exact level of offloading varies between drivers. -rxcsum, -txcsum If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading, disable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the inter- face. These settings may not always be independent of each other. tso If the driver supports TCP segmentation offloading, enable TCP segmentation offloading on the interface. -tso If the driver supports TCP segmentation offloading, disable TCP segmentation offloading on the interface. vlanmtu, vlanhwtag If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, enable reception of extended frames or tag processing in hardware, respectively. Note that this must be issued on a physical inter- face associated with vlan(4), not on a vlan(4) interface itself. -vlanmtu, -vlanhwtag If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, disable reception of extended frames or tag processing in hardware, respectively. pollcpu cpu Deprecated, use polling or npolling instead. polling, npolling Turn on polling(4) feature and disable interrupts on the inter- face, if the driver supports this mode. -polling, -npolling Turn off polling(4) feature and enable interrupt mode on the interface. create Create the specified network pseudo-device. If the interface is given without a unit number, try to create a new device with an arbitrary unit number. If creation of an arbitrary device is successful, the new device name is printed to standard output unless the interface is renamed or destroyed in the same ifconfig invocation. destroy Destroy the specified network pseudo-device. plumb Another name for the create parameter. Included for Solaris com- patibility. unplumb Another name for the destroy parameter. Included for Solaris compatibility. metric n Set the routing metric of the interface to n, default 0. The routing metric is used by the routing protocol (routed(8)). Higher metrics have the effect of making a route less favorable; metrics are counted as additional hops to the destination network or host. mtu n Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to n, default is interface specific. The MTU is used to limit the size of packets that are transmitted on an interface. Not all interfaces support setting the MTU, and some interfaces have range restric- tions. tsolen n Set the maximum amount of data that TCP segmentation offloading is allowed to aggregate to n, the default value is interface spe- cific. This setting only takes effect on interfaces that support TCP segmentation offloading. netmask mask (Inet only.) Specify how much of the address to reserve for sub- dividing networks into sub-networks. The mask includes the net- work part of the local address and the subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the address. The mask can be speci- fied as a single hexadecimal number with a leading `0x', with a dot-notation Internet address, or with a pseudo-network name listed in the network table networks(5). The mask contains 1's for the bit positions in the 32-bit address which are to be used for the network and subnet parts, and 0's for the host part. The mask should contain at least the standard network portion, and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion. The netmask can also be specified in CIDR notation after the address. See the address option above for more information. autoconf (Inet6 only.) Enable autoconfiguration. -autoconf Disable autoconfiguration. pltime n (Inet6 only.) Set preferred lifetime for the address. vltime n (Inet6 only.) Set valid lifetime for the address. prefixlen len (Inet6 only.) Specify that len bits are reserved for subdividing networks into sub-networks. The len must be integer, and for syntactical reason it must be between 0 to 128. It is almost always 64 under the current IPv6 assignment rule. If the parame- ter is omitted, 64 is used. The prefix can also be specified using the slash notation after the address. See the address option above for more information. deprecated (Inet6 only.) Set the IPv6 deprecated address bit. -deprecated (Inet6 only.) Clear the IPv6 deprecated address bit. tentative (Inet6 only.) Set the IPv6 tentative address bit. -tentative (Inet6 only.) Clear the IPv6 tentative address bit. range netrange Under appletalk, set the interface to respond to a netrange of the form startnet-endnet. Appletalk uses this scheme instead of netmasks though DragonFly implements it internally as a set of netmasks. remove Another name for the -alias parameter. Introduced for compati- bility with BSD/OS. phase The argument following this specifies the version (phase) of the Appletalk network attached to the interface. Values of 1 or 2 are permitted. link[0-2] Enable special processing of the link level of the interface. These three options are interface specific in actual effect, how- ever, they are in general used to select special modes of opera- tion. An example of this is to enable SLIP compression, or to select the connector type for some Ethernet cards. Refer to the man page for the specific driver for more information. -link[0-2] Disable special processing at the link level with the specified interface. compress Another name for the link0 parameter. normal Another name for the -link0 parameter. noicmp Another name for the link1 parameter. monitor Put the interface in monitor mode. No packets are transmitted, and received packets are discarded after bpf(4) processing. -monitor Take the interface out of monitor mode. up Mark an interface ``up''. This may be used to enable an inter- face after an ``ifconfig down''. It happens automatically when setting the first address on an interface. If the interface was reset when previously marked down, the hardware will be re-ini- tialized. The following parameters are specific to cloning IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces with the create request: wlandev device Use device as the parent for the cloned device. wlanmode mode Specify the operating mode for this cloned device. mode is one of sta, ahdemo (or adhoc-demo ), ibss, (or adhoc ), ap, (or hostap ), wds, tdma, mesh, and monitor. The operating mode of a cloned interface cannot be changed. The tdma mode is actually implemented as an adhoc-demo interface with special properties. wlanbssid bssid The 802.11 mac address to use for the bssid. This must be speci- fied at create time for a legacy wds device. wlanaddr address The local mac address. If this is not specified then a mac address will automatically be assigned to the cloned device. Typically this address is the same as the address of the parent device but if the bssid parameter is specified then the driver will craft a unique address for the device (if supported). wdslegacy Mark a wds device as operating in ``legacy mode''. Legacy wds devices have a fixed peer relationship and do not, for example, roam if their peer stops communicating. For completeness a Dynamic WDS (DWDS) interface may marked as -wdslegacy. bssid Request a unique local mac address for the cloned device. This is only possible if the device supports multiple mac addresses. To force use of the parent's mac address use -bssid. beacons Mark the cloned interface as depending on hardware support to track received beacons. To have beacons tracked in software use -beacons. For hostap mode -beacons can also be used to indicate no beacons should be transmitted; this can be useful when creat- ing a WDS configuration but wds interfaces can only be created as companions to an access point. The following parameters are specific to IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces cloned with a create operation: ampdu Enable sending and receiving AMPDU frames when using 802.11n (default). The 802.11n specification states a compliant station must be capable of receiving AMPDU frames but transmission is optional. Use -ampdu to disable all use of AMPDU with 802.11n. For testing and/or to work around interoperability problems one can use ampdutx and ampdurx to control use of AMPDU in one direc- tion. ampdudensity density Set the AMPDU density parameter used when operating with 802.11n. This parameter controls the inter-packet gap for AMPDU frames. The sending device normally controls this setting but a receiving station may request wider gaps. Legal values for density are 0, .25, .5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 (microseconds). A value of - is treated the same as 0. ampdulimit limit Set the limit on packet size for receiving AMPDU frames when operating with 802.11n. Legal values for limit are 8192, 16384, 32768, and 65536 but one can also specify just the unique prefix: 8, 16, 32, 64. Note the sender may limit the size of AMPDU frames to be less than the maximum specified by the receiving station. amsdu Enable sending and receiving AMSDU frames when using 802.11n. By default AMSDU is received but not transmitted. Use -amsdu to disable all use of AMSDU with 802.11n. For testing and/or to work around interoperability problems one can use amsdutx and amsdurx to control use of AMSDU in one direction. amsdulimit limit Set the limit on packet size for sending and receiving AMSDU frames when operating with 802.11n. Legal values for limit are 7935 and 3839 (bytes). Note the sender may limit the size of AMSDU frames to be less than the maximum specified by the receiv- ing station. Note also that devices are not required to support the 7935 limit, only 3839 is required by the specification and the larger value may require more memory to be dedicated to sup- port functionality that is rarely used. apbridge When operating as an access point, pass packets between wireless clients directly (default). To instead let them pass up through the system and be forwarded using some other mechanism, use -apbridge. Disabling the internal bridging is useful when traf- fic is to be processed with packet filtering. authmode mode Set the desired authentication mode in infrastructure mode. Not all adapters support all modes. The set of valid modes is none, open, shared (shared key), 8021x (IEEE 802.1x), and wpa (IEEE WPA/WPA2/802.11i). The 8021x and wpa modes are only useful when using an authentication service (a supplicant for client opera- tion or an authenticator when operating as an access point). Modes are case insensitive. bgscan Enable background scanning when operating as a station. Back- ground scanning is a technique whereby a station associated to an access point will temporarily leave the channel to scan for neighboring stations. This allows a station to maintain a cache of nearby access points so that roaming between access points can be done without a lengthy scan operation. Background scanning is done only when a station is not busy and any outbound traffic will cancel a scan operation. Background scanning should never cause packets to be lost though there may be some small latency if outbound traffic interrupts a scan operation. By default background scanning is enabled if the device is capable. To dis- able background scanning, use -bgscan. Background scanning is controlled by the bgscanidle and bgscanintvl parameters. Back- ground scanning must be enabled for roaming; this is an artifact of the current implementation and may not be required in the future. bgscanidle idletime Set the minimum time a station must be idle (not transmitting or receiving frames) before a background scan is initiated. The idletime parameter is specified in milliseconds. By default a station must be idle at least 250 milliseconds before a back- ground scan is initiated. The idle time may not be set to less than 100 milliseconds. bgscanintvl interval Set the interval at which background scanning is attempted. The interval parameter is specified in seconds. By default a back- ground scan is considered every 300 seconds (5 minutes). The interval may not be set to less than 15 seconds. bintval interval Set the interval at which beacon frames are sent when operating in ad-hoc or ap mode. The interval parameter is specified in TU's (1024 usecs). By default beacon frames are transmitted every 100 TU's. bmissthreshold count Set the number of consecutive missed beacons at which the station will attempt to roam (i.e., search for a new access point). The count parameter must be in the range 1 to 255; though the upper bound may be reduced according to device capabilities. The default threshold is 7 consecutive missed beacons; but this may be overridden by the device driver. Another name for the bmissthreshold parameter is bmiss. bssid address Specify the MAC address of the access point to use when operating as a station in a BSS network. This overrides any automatic selection done by the system. To disable a previously selected access point, supply any, none, or - for the address. This option is useful when more than one access point uses the same SSID. Another name for the bssid parameter is ap. burst Enable packet bursting. Packet bursting is a transmission tech- nique whereby the wireless medium is acquired once to send multi- ple frames and the interframe spacing is reduced. This technique can significantly increase throughput by reducing transmission overhead. Packet bursting is supported by the 802.11e QoS speci- fication and some devices that do not support QoS may still be capable. By default packet bursting is enabled if a device is capable of doing it. To disable packet bursting, use -burst. chanlist channels Set the desired channels to use when scanning for access points, neighbors in an IBSS network, or looking for unoccupied channels when operating as an access point. The set of channels is speci- fied as a comma-separated list with each element in the list rep- resenting either a single channel number or a range of the form ``a-b''. Channel numbers must be in the range 1 to 255 and be permissible according to the operating characteristics of the device. channel number Set a single desired channel. Channels range from 1 to 255, but the exact selection available depends on the region your adaptor was manufactured for. Setting the channel to any, or - will clear any desired channel and, if the device is marked up, force a scan for a channel to operate on. Alternatively the frequency, in megahertz, may be specified instead of the channel number. When there are several ways to use a channel the channel num- ber/frequency may be appended with attributes to clarify. For example, if a device is capable of operating on channel 6 with 802.11n and 802.11g then one can specify that g-only use should be used by specifying ``6:g''. Similarly the channel width can be specified by appending it with ``/''; e.g. ``6/40'' specifies a 40MHz wide channel, These attributes can be combined as in: ``6:ht/40''. The full set of flags specified following a `:'' are: a (802.11a), b (802.11b), d (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode), g (802.11g), h or n (802.11n aka HT), s (Atheros Static Turbo mode), and t (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode, or appended to ``st'' and ``dt''). The full set of channel widths following a '/' are: 5 (5MHz aka quarter-rate channel), 10 (10MHz aka half-rate chan- nel), 20 (20MHz mostly for use in specifying ht20), and 40 (40MHz mostly for use in specifying ht40), In addition, a 40MHz HT chan- nel specification may include the location of the extension chan- nel by appending ``+'' or ``-'' for above and below, respec- tively; e.g. ``2437:ht/40+'' specifies 40MHz wide HT operation with the center channel at frequency 2437 and the extension chan- nel above. country name Set the country code to use in calculating the regulatory con- straints for operation. In particular the set of available chan- nels, how the wireless device will operation on the channels, and the maximum transmit power that can be used on a channel are defined by this setting. Country/Region codes are specified as a 2-character abbreviation defined by ISO 3166 or using a longer, but possibly ambiguous, spelling; e.g. "ES" and "Spain". The set of country codes are taken from /etc/regdomain.xml and can also be viewed with the ``list countries'' request. Note that not all devices support changing the country code from a default setting; typically stored in EEPROM. See also regdomain, indoor, outdoor, and anywhere. dfs Enable Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) as specified in 802.11h. DFS embodies several facilities including detection of overlap- ping radar signals, dynamic transmit power control, and channel selection according to a least-congested criteria. DFS support is mandatory for some 5Ghz frequencies in certain locales (e.g. ETSI). By default DFS is enabled according to the regulatory definitions specified in /etc/regdomain.xml and the curent coun- try code, regdomain, and channel. Note the underlying device (and driver) must support radar detection for full DFS support to work. To be fully compliant with the local regulatory agency frequencies that require DFS should not be used unless it is fully supported. Use -dfs to disable this functionality for testing. dotd Enable support for the 802.11d specification (default). When this support is enabled in station mode, beacon frames that advertise a country code different than the currently configured country code will cause an event to be dispatched to user appli- cations. This event can be used by the station to adopt that country code and operate according to the associated regulatory constraints. When operating as an access point with 802.11d enabled the beacon and probe response frames transmitted will advertise the current regulatory domain settings. To disable 802.11d use -dotd. doth Enable 802.11h support including spectrum management. When 802.11h is enabled beacon and probe response frames will have the SpectrumMgt bit set in the capabilities field and country and power constraint information elements will be present. 802.11h support also includes handling Channel Switch Announcements (CSA) which are a mechanism to coordinate channel changes by an access point. By default 802.11h is enabled if the device is capable. To disable 802.11h use -doth. deftxkey index Set the default key to use for transmission. Typically this is only set when using WEP encryption. Note that you must set a default transmit key for the system to know which key to use in encrypting outbound traffic. The weptxkey is an alias for this request; it is provided for backwards compatibility. dtimperiod period Set the DTIM period for transmitting buffered multicast data frames when operating in ap mode. The period specifies the num- ber of beacon intervals between DTIM and must be in the range 1 to 15. By default DTIM is 1 (i.e., DTIM occurs at each beacon). dturbo Enable the use of Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode when communicating with another Dynamic Turbo-capable station. Dynamic Turbo mode is an Atheros-specific mechanism by which stations switch between normal 802.11 operation and a ``boosted'' mode in which a 40MHz wide channel is used for communication. Stations using Dynamic Turbo mode operate boosted only when the channel is free of non- dturbo stations; when a non-dturbo station is identified on the channel all stations will automatically drop back to normal oper- ation. By default, Dynamic Turbo mode is not enabled, even if the device is capable. Note that turbo mode (dynamic or static) is only allowed on some channels depending on the regulatory con- straints; use the list chan command to identify the channels where turbo mode may be used. To disable Dynamic Turbo mode use -dturbo. dwds Enable Dynamic WDS (DWDS) support. DWDS is a facility by which 4-address traffic can be carried between stations operating in infrastructure mode. A station first associates to an access point and authenticates using normal procedures (e.g. WPA). Then 4-address frames are passed to carry traffic for stations operat- ing on either side of the wireless link. DWDS extends the normal WDS mechanism by leveraging existing security protocols and elim- inating static binding. When DWDS is enabled on an access point 4-address frames received from an authorized station will generate a ``DWDS discovery'' event to user applications. This event should be used to create a WDS interface that is bound to the remote station (and usually plumbed into a bridge). Once the WDS interface is up and running 4-address traffic then logically flows through that interface. When DWDS is enabled on a station, traffic with a destination address different from the peer station are encapsulated in a 4-address frame and transmitted to the peer. All 4-address traf- fic uses the security information of the stations (e.g. crypto- graphic keys). A station is associated using 802.11n facilities may transport 4-address traffic using these same mechanisms; this depends on available resources and capabilities of the device. The DWDS implementation guards against layer 2 routing loops of multicast traffic. ff Enable the use of Atheros Fast Frames when communicating with another Fast Frames-capable station. Fast Frames are an encapsu- lation technique by which two 802.3 frames are transmitted in a single 802.11 frame. This can noticeably improve throughput but requires that the receiving station understand how to decapsulate the frame. Fast frame use is negotiated using the Atheros 802.11 vendor-specific protocol extension so enabling use is safe when communicating with non-Atheros devices. By default, use of fast frames is enabled if the device is capable. To explicitly dis- able fast frames, use -ff. fragthreshold length Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are broken into fragments. The length argument is the frame size in bytes and must be in the range 256 to 2346. Setting length to 2346, any, or - disables transmit fragmentation. Not all adapters honor the fragmentation threshold. hidessid When operating as an access point, do not broadcast the SSID in beacon frames or respond to probe request frames unless they are directed to the ap (i.e., they include the ap's SSID). By default, the SSID is included in beacon frames and undirected probe request frames are answered. To re-enable the broadcast of the SSID etc., use -hidessid. ht Enable use of High Throughput (HT) when using 802.11n (default). The 802.11n specification includes mechanisms for operation on 20MHz and 40MHz wide channels using different signalling mecha- nisms than specified in 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a. Stations negotiate use of these facilities, termed HT20 and HT40, when they associate. To disable all use of 802.11n use -ht. To dis- able use of HT20 (e.g. to force only HT40 use) use -ht20. To disable use of HT40 use -ht40. HT configuration is used to ``auto promote'' operation when sev- eral choices are available. For example, if a station associates to an 11n-capable access point it controls whether the station uses legacy operation, HT20, or HT40. When an 11n-capable device is setup as an access point and Auto Channel Selection is used to locate a channel to operate on, HT configuration controls whether legacy, HT20, or HT40 operation is setup on the selected channel. If a fixed channel is specified for a station then HT configura- tion can be given as part of the channel specification; e.g. 6:ht/20 to setup HT20 operation on channel 6. htcompat Enable use of compatibility support for pre-802.11n devices (default). The 802.11n protocol specification went through sev- eral incompatible iterations. Some vendors implemented 11n sup- port to older specifications that will not interoperate with a purely 11n-compliant station. In particular the information ele- ments included in management frames for old devices are differ- ent. When compatibility support is enabled both standard and compatible data will be provided. Stations that associate using the compatibility mechanisms are flagged in ``list sta''. To disable compatibility support use -htcompat. htprotmode technique For interfaces operating in 802.11n, use the specified technique for protecting HT frames in a mixed legacy/HT network. The set of valid techniques is off, and rts (RTS/CTS, default). Tech- nique names are case insensitive. inact Enable inactivity processing for stations associated to an access point (default). When operating as an access point the 802.11 layer monitors the activity of each associated station. When a station is inactive for 5 minutes it will send several ``probe frames'' to see if the station is still present. If no response is received then the station is deauthenticated. Applications that prefer to handle this work can disable this facility by using -inact. indoor Set the location to use in calculating regulatory constraints. The location is also advertised in beacon and probe response frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd. See also outdoor, anywhere, country, and regdomain. list active Display the list of channels available for use taking into account any restrictions set with the chanlist directive. See the description of list chan for more information. list caps Display the adaptor's capabilities, including the operating modes supported. list chan Display the list of channels available for use. Channels are shown with their IEEE channel number, equivalent frequency, and usage modes. Channels identified as `11g' are also usable in `11b' mode. Channels identified as `11a Turbo' may be used only for Atheros' Static Turbo mode (specified with mediaopt turbo). Channels marked with a `*' have a regulatory constraint that they be passively scanned. This means a station is not permitted to transmit on the channel until it identifies the channel is being used for 802.11 communication; typically by hearing a beacon frame from an access point operating on the channel. list freq is another way of requesting this information. By default a com- pacted list of channels is displayed; if the -v option is speci- fied then all channels are shown. list countries Display the set of country codes and regulatory domains that can be used in regulatory configuration. list mac Display the current MAC Access Control List state. Each address is prefixed with a character that indicates the current policy applied to it: `+' indicates the address is allowed access, `-' indicates the address is denied access, `*' indicates the address is present but the current policy open (so the ACL is not con- sulted). list mesh Displays the mesh routing table, used for forwarding packets on a mesh network. list regdomain Display the current regulatory settings including the available channels and transmit power caps. list roam Display the parameters that govern roaming operation. list txparam Display the parameters that govern transmit operation. list txpower Display the transmit power caps for each channel. list scan Display the access points and/or ad-hoc neighbors located in the vicinity. This information may be updated automatically by the adapter with a scan request or through background scanning. Depending on the capabilities of the stations the following flags can be included in the output: A Authorized. Indicates that the station is permitted to send/receive data frames. E Extended Rate Phy (ERP). Indicates that the station is operating in an 802.11g network using extended transmit rates. H High Throughput (HT). Indicates that the station is using HT transmit rates. If a `+' follows immediately after then the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported only when htcompat is enabled. P Power Save. Indicates that the station is operating in power save mode. Q Quality of Service (QoS). Indicates that the station is using QoS encapsulation for data frame. QoS encapsulation is enabled only when WME mode is enabled. T Transitional Security Network (TSN). Indicates that the station associated using TSN; see also tsn below. W Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS). Indicates that the station associated using WPS. By default interesting information elements captured from the neighboring stations are displayed at the end of each row. Pos- sible elements include: WME (station supports WME), WPA (station supports WPA), WPS (station supports WPS), RSN (station supports 802.11i/RSN), HTCAP (station supports 802.11n/HT communication), ATH (station supports Atheros protocol extensions), VEN (station supports unknown vendor-specific extensions). If the -v flag is used all the information elements and their contents will be shown. Specifying the -v flag also enables display of long SSIDs. The list ap command is another way of requesting this information. list sta When operating as an access point display the stations that are currently associated. When operating in ad-hoc mode display sta- tions identified as neighbors in the IBSS. When operating in mesh mode display stations identified as neighbors in the MBSS. When operating in station mode display the access point. Capa- bilities advertised by the stations are described under the scan request. Depending on the capabilities of the stations the fol- lowing flags can be included in the output: A Authorized. Indicates that the station is permitted to send/receive data frames. E Extended Rate Phy (ERP). Indicates that the station is operating in an 802.11g network using extended transmit rates. H High Throughput (HT). Indicates that the station is using HT transmit rates. If a `+' follows immediately after then the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported only when htcompat is enabled. P Power Save. Indicates that the station is operating in power save mode. Q Quality of Service (QoS). Indicates that the station is using QoS encapsulation for data frame. QoS encapsulation is enabled only when WME mode is enabled. T Transitional Security Network (TSN). Indicates that the station associated using TSN; see also tsn below. W Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS). Indicates that the station associated using WPS. By default information elements received from associated stations are displayed in a short form; the -v flag causes this informa- tion to be displayed symbolically. list wme Display the current channel parameters to use when operating in WME mode. If the -v option is specified then both channel and BSS parameters are displayed for each AC (first channel, then BSS). When WME mode is enabled for an adaptor this information will be displayed with the regular status; this command is mostly useful for examining parameters when WME mode is disabled. See the description of the wme directive for information on the vari- ous parameters. maxretry count Set the maximum number of tries to use in sending unicast frames. The default setting is 6 but drivers may override this with a value they choose. mcastrate rate Set the rate for transmitting multicast/broadcast frames. Rates are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for 5.5 Mb/s. This rate should be valid for the current operating condi- tions; if an invalid rate is specified drivers are free to chose an appropriate rate. mgtrate rate Set the rate for transmitting management and/or control frames. Rates are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for 5.5 Mb/s. outdoor Set the location to use in calculating regulatory constraints. The location is also advertised in beacon and probe response frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd. See also anywhere, country, indoor, and regdomain. powersave Enable powersave operation. When operating as a client, the sta- tion will conserve power by periodically turning off the radio and listening for messages from the access point telling it there are packets waiting. The station must then retrieve the packets. Not all devices support power save operation as a client. The 802.11 specification requires that all access points support power save but some drivers do not. Use -powersave to disable powersave operation when operating as a client. powersavemode mode Set powersave mode. The set of valid modes is off (same as -powersave), on (same as powersave), and cam (same as powersave). powersavesleep sleep Set the desired max powersave sleep time in TU's (1024 usecs). By default the max powersave sleep time is 100 TU's. protmode technique For interfaces operating in 802.11g, use the specified technique for protecting OFDM frames in a mixed 11b/11g network. The set of valid techniques is off, cts (CTS to self), and rtscts (RTS/CTS). Technique names are case insensitive. Not all devices support cts as a protection technique. pureg When operating as an access point in 802.11g mode allow only 11g- capable stations to associate (11b-only stations are not permit- ted to associate). To allow both 11g and 11b-only stations to associate, use -pureg. puren When operating as an access point in 802.11n mode allow only HT- capable stations to associate (legacy stations are not permitted to associate). To allow both HT and legacy stations to asso- ciate, use -puren. regdomain sku Set the regulatory domain to use in calculating the regulatory constraints for operation. In particular the set of available channels, how the wireless device will operation on the channels, and the maximum transmit power that can be used on a channel are defined by this setting. Regdomain codes (SKU's) are taken from /etc/regdomain.xml and can also be viewed with the ``list coun- tries'' request. Note that not all devices support changing the regdomain from a default setting; typically stored in EEPROM. See also country, indoor, outdoor, and anywhere. rifs Enable use of Reduced InterFrame Spacing (RIFS) when operating in 802.11n on an HT channel. Note that RIFS must be supported by both the station and access point for it to be used. To disable RIFS use -rifs. roam:rate rate Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a BSS. The rate parameter specifies the transmit rate in megabits at which roaming should be considered. If the current transmit rate drops below this setting and background scanning is enabled, then the system will check if a more desirable access point is available and switch over to it. The current scan cache contents are used if they are considered valid according to the scanvalid parameter; otherwise a background scan operation is triggered before any selection occurs. Each channel type has a separate rate threshold; the default values are: 12 Mb/s (11a), 2 Mb/s (11b), 2 Mb/s (11g), MCS 1 (11na, 11ng). roam:rssi rssi Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a BSS. The rssi parameter specifies the receive signal strength in dBm units at which roaming should be considered. If the current rssi drops below this setting and background scanning is enabled, then the system will check if a more desirable access point is available and switch over to it. The current scan cache contents are used if they are considered valid according to the scanvalid parameter; otherwise a background scan operation is triggered before any selection occurs. Each channel type has a separate rssi threshold; the default values are all 7 dBm. roaming mode When operating as a station, control how the system will behave when communication with the current access point is broken. The mode argument may be one of device (leave it to the hardware device to decide), auto (handle either in the device or the oper- ating system--as appropriate), manual (do nothing until explic- itly instructed). By default, the device is left to handle this if it is capable; otherwise, the operating system will automati- cally attempt to reestablish communication. Manual mode is used by applications such as wpa_supplicant(8) that want to control the selection of an access point. rtsthreshold length Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are preceded by transmission of an RTS control frame. The length argument is the frame size in bytes and must be in the range 1 to 2346. Setting length to 2346, any, or - disables transmission of RTS frames. Not all adapters support setting the RTS threshold. scan Initiate a scan of neighboring stations, wait for it to complete, and display all stations found. Only the super-user can initiate a scan. See list scan for information on the display. By default a background scan is done; otherwise a foreground scan is done and the station may roam to a different access point. The list scan request can be used to show recent scan results without initiating a new scan. scanvalid threshold Set the maximum time the scan cache contents are considered valid; i.e. will be used without first triggering a scan opera- tion to refresh the data. The threshold parameter is specified in seconds and defaults to 60 seconds. The minimum setting for threshold is 10 seconds. One should take care setting this threshold; if it is set too low then attempts to roam to another access point may trigger unnecessary background scan operations. shortgi Enable use of Short Guard Interval when operating in 802.11n on an HT channel. NB: this currently enables Short GI on both HT40 and HT20 channels. To disable Short GI use -shortgi. smps Enable use of Static Spatial Multiplexing Power Save (SMPS) when operating in 802.11n. A station operating with Static SMPS main- tains only a single receive chain active (this can significantly reduce power consumption). To disable SMPS use -smps. smpsdyn Enable use of Dynamic Spatial Multiplexing Power Save (SMPS) when operating in 802.11n. A station operating with Dynamic SMPS maintains only a single receive chain active but switches to mul- tiple receive chains when it receives an RTS frame (this can sig- nificantly reduce power consumption). Note that stations cannot distinguish between RTS/CTS intended to enable multiple receive chains and those used for other purposes. To disable SMPS use -smps. ssid ssid Set the desired Service Set Identifier (aka network name). The SSID is a string up to 32 characters in length and may be speci- fied as either a normal string or in hexadecimal when preceded by `0x'. Additionally, the SSID may be cleared by setting it to `-'. tdmaslot slot When operating with TDMA, use the specified slot configuration. The slot is a number between 0 and the maximum number of slots in the BSS. Note that a station configured as slot 0 is a master and will broadcast beacon frames advertising the BSS; stations configured to use other slots will always scan to locate a master before they ever transmit. By default tdmaslot is set to 1. tdmaslotcnt cnt When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS with cnt slots. The slot count may be at most 8. The current implementation is only tested with two stations (i.e. point to point applications). This setting is only meaningful when a station is configured as slot 0; other stations adopt this setting from the BSS they join. By default tdmaslotcnt is set to 2. tdmaslotlen len When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such that each station has a slot len microseconds long. The slot length must be at least 150 microseconds (1/8 TU) and no more than 65 milliseconds. Note that setting too small a slot length may result in poor channel bandwidth utilization due to factors such as timer granularity and guard time. This setting is only meaningful when a station is configured as slot 0; other stations adopt this setting from the BSS they join. By default tdmaslotlen is set to 10 millisec- onds. tdmabintval intval When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such that beacons are transmitted every intval superframes to synchronize the TDMA slot timing. A superframe is defined as the number of slots times the slot length; e.g. a BSS with two slots of 10 milliseconds has a 20 millisecond superframe. The beacon interval may not be zero. A lower setting of tdmabintval causes the timers to be resynchro- nized more often; this can be help if significant timer drift is observed. By default tdmabintval is set to 5. tsn When operating as an access point with WPA/802.11i allow legacy stations to associate using static key WEP and open authentica- tion. To disallow legacy station use of WEP, use -tsn. txpower power Set the power used to transmit frames. The power argument is specified in .5 dBm units. Out of range values are truncated. Typically only a few discreet power settings are available and the driver will use the setting closest to the specified value. Not all adapters support changing the transmit power. ucastrate rate Set a fixed rate for transmitting unicast frames. Rates are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for 5.5 Mb/s. This rate should be valid for the current operating conditions; if an invalid rate is specified drivers are free to chose an appropriate rate. wepmode mode Set the desired WEP mode. Not all adapters support all modes. The set of valid modes is off, on, and mixed. The mixed mode explicitly tells the adaptor to allow association with access points which allow both encrypted and unencrypted traffic. On these adapters, on means that the access point must only allow encrypted connections. On other adapters, on is generally another name for mixed. Modes are case insensitive. weptxkey index Set the WEP key to be used for transmission. This is the same as setting the default transmission key with deftxkey. wepkey key|index:key Set the selected WEP key. If an index is not given, key 1 is set. A WEP key will be either 5 or 13 characters (40 or 104 bits) depending of the local network and the capabilities of the adaptor. It may be specified either as a plain string or as a string of hexadecimal digits preceded by `0x'. For maximum portability, hex keys are recommended; the mapping of text keys to WEP encryption is usually driver-specific. In particular, the Windows drivers do this mapping differently to FreeBSD. A key may be cleared by setting it to `-'. If WEP is supported then there are at least four keys. Some adapters support more than four keys. If that is the case, then the first four keys (1-4) will be the standard temporary keys and any others will be adap- tor specific keys such as permanent keys stored in NVRAM. Note that you must set a default transmit key with deftxkey for the system to know which key to use in encrypting outbound traf- fic. wme Enable Wireless Multimedia Extensions (WME) support, if avail- able, for the specified interface. WME is a subset of the IEEE 802.11e standard to support the efficient communication of real- time and multimedia data. To disable WME support, use -wme. Another name for this parameter is wmm. The following parameters are meaningful only when WME support is in use. Parameters are specified per-AC (Access Category) and split into those that are used by a station when acting as an access point and those for client stations in the BSS. The lat- ter are received from the access point and may not be changed (at the station). The following Access Categories are recognized: AC_BE (or BE) best effort delivery, AC_BK (or BK) background traffic, AC_VI (or VI) video traffic, AC_VO (or VO) voice traffic. AC parameters are case-insensitive. Traffic classification is done in the operating system using the vlan priority associated with data frames or the ToS (Type of Service) indication in IP- encapsulated frames. If neither information is present, traffic is assigned to the Best Effort (BE) category. ack ac Set the ACK policy for QoS transmissions by the local station; this controls whether or not data frames trans- mitted by a station require an ACK response from the receiving station. To disable waiting for an ACK use -ack. This parameter is applied only to the local sta- tion. acm ac Enable the Admission Control Mandatory (ACM) mechanism for transmissions by the local station. To disable the ACM use -acm. On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received from the access point. NB: ACM is not supported right now. aifs ac count Set the Arbitration Inter Frame Spacing (AIFS) channel access parameter to use for transmissions by the local station. On stations in a BSS this parameter is read- only and indicates the setting received from the access point. cwmin ac count Set the CWmin channel access parameter to use for trans- missions by the local station. On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received from the access point. cwmax ac count Set the CWmax channel access parameter to use for trans- missions by the local station. On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received from the access point. txoplimit ac limit Set the Transmission Opportunity Limit channel access parameter to use for transmissions by the local station. This parameter defines an interval of time when a WME station has the right to initiate transmissions onto the wireless medium. On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received from the access point. bss:aifs ac count Set the AIFS channel access parameter to send to stations in a BSS. This parameter is meaningful only when operat- ing in ap mode. bss:cwmin ac count Set the CWmin channel access parameter to send to sta- tions in a BSS. This parameter is meaningful only when operating in ap mode. bss:cwmax ac count Set the CWmax channel access parameter to send to sta- tions in a BSS. This parameter is meaningful only when operating in ap mode. bss:txoplimit ac limit Set the TxOpLimit channel access parameter to send to stations in a BSS. This parameter is meaningful only when operating in ap mode. wps Enable Wireless Privacy Subscriber support. Note that WPS sup- port requires a WPS-capable supplicant. To disable this function use -wps. The following parameters support an optional access control list feature available with some adapters when operating in ap mode; see wlan_acl(4). This facility allows an access point to accept/deny association requests based on the MAC address of the station. Note that this feature does not significantly enhance security as MAC address spoofing is easy to do. mac:add address Add the specified MAC address to the database. Depending on the policy setting association requests from the specified station will be allowed or denied. mac:allow Set the ACL policy to permit association only by stations regis- tered in the database. mac:del address Delete the specified MAC address from the database. mac:deny Set the ACL policy to deny association only by stations regis- tered in the database. mac:kick address Force the specified station to be deauthenticated. This typi- cally is done to block a station after updating the address data- base. mac:open Set the ACL policy to allow all stations to associate. mac:flush Delete all entries in the database. mac:radius Set the ACL policy to permit association only by stations approved by a RADIUS server. Note that this feature requires the hostapd(8) program be configured to do the right thing as it han- dles the RADIUS processing (and marks stations as authorized). The following parameters are related to a wireless interface operating in mesh mode: meshid meshid Set the desired Mesh Identifier. The Mesh ID is a string up to 32 characters in length. A mesh interface must have a Mesh Iden- tifier specified to reach an operational state. meshttl ttl Set the desired ``time to live'' for mesh forwarded packets; this is the number of hops a packet may be forwarded before it is dis- carded. The default setting for meshttl is 31. meshpeering Enable or disable peering with neighbor mesh stations. Stations must peer before any data packets can be exchanged. By default meshpeering is enabled. meshforward Enable or disable forwarding packets by a mesh interface. By default meshforward is enabled. meshmetric protocol Set the specified protocol as the link metric protocol used on a mesh network. The default protocol is called AIRTIME. The mesh interface will restart after changing this setting. meshpath protocol Set the specified protocol as the path selection protocol used on a mesh network. The only available protocol at the moment is called HWMP (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol). The mesh interface will restart after changing this setting. hwmprootmode mode Stations on a mesh network can operate as ``root nodes.'' Root nodes try to find paths to all mesh nodes and advertise them- selves regularly. When there is a root mesh node on a network, other mesh nodes can setup paths between themselves faster because they can use the root node to find the destination. This path may not be the best, but on-demand routing will eventually find the best path. The following modes are recognized: DISABLED Disable root mode. NORMAL Send broadcast path requests every two seconds. Nodes on the mesh without a path to this root mesh station with try to discover a path to us. PROACTIVE Send broadcast path requests every two seconds and every node must reply with a path reply even if it already has a path to this root mesh station, RANN Send broadcast root announcement (RANN) frames. Nodes on the mesh without a path to this root mesh station with try to discover a path to us. By default hwmprootmode is set to DISABLED. hwmpmaxhops cnt Set the maximum number of hops allowed in an HMWP path to cnt. The default setting for hwmpmaxhops is 31. The following parameters are for compatibility with other systems: nwid ssid Another name for the ssid parameter. Included for NetBSD compat- ibility. stationname name Set the name of this station. The station name is not part of the IEEE 802.11 protocol though some interfaces support it. As such it only seems to be meaningful to identical or virtually identical equipment. Setting the station name is identical in syntax to setting the SSID. One can also use station for BSD/OS compatibility. wep Another way of saying wepmode on. Included for BSD/OS compati- bility. -wep Another way of saying wepmode off. Included for BSD/OS compati- bility. nwkey key Another way of saying: ``wepmode on weptxkey 1 wepkey 1:key wepkey 2:- wepkey 3:- wepkey 4:-''. Included for NetBSD compati- bility. nwkey n:k1,k2,k3,k4 Another way of saying ``wepmode on weptxkey n wepkey 1:k1 wepkey 2:k2 wepkey 3:k3 wepkey 4:k4''. Included for NetBSD compatibil- ity. -nwkey Another way of saying wepmode off. Included for NetBSD compati- bility. The following parameters are specific to bridge interfaces: addm interface Add the interface named by interface as a member of the bridge. The interface is put into promiscuous mode so that it can receive every packet sent on the network. deletem interface Remove the interface named by interface from the bridge. Promis- cuous mode is disabled on the interface when it is removed from the bridge. maxaddr size Set the size of the bridge address cache to size. The default is 100 entries. timeout seconds Set the timeout of address cache entries to seconds seconds. If seconds is zero, then address cache entries will not be expired. The default is 1200 seconds. addr Display the addresses that have been learned by the bridge. static interface-name address Add a static entry into the address cache pointing to interface-name. Static entries are never aged out of the cache or re-placed, even if the address is seen on a different inter- face. deladdr address Delete address from the address cache. flush Delete all dynamically-learned addresses from the address cache. flushall Delete all addresses, including static addresses, from the address cache. discover interface Mark an interface as a ``discovering'' interface. When the bridge has no address cache entry (either dynamic or static) for the destination address of a packet, the bridge will forward the packet to all member interfaces marked as ``discovering''. This is the default for all interfaces added to a bridge. -discover interface Clear the ``discovering'' attribute on a member interface. For packets without the ``discovering'' attribute, the only packets forwarded on the interface are broadcast or multicast packets and packets for which the destination address is known to be on the interface's segment. learn interface Mark an interface as a ``learning'' interface. When a packet arrives on such an interface, the source address of the packet is entered into the address cache as being a destination address on the interface's segment. This is the default for all interfaces added to a bridge. -learn interface Clear the ``learning'' attribute on a member interface. span interface Add the interface named by interface as a span port on the bridge. Span ports transmit a copy of every frame received by the bridge. This is most useful for snooping a bridged network passively on another host connected to one of the span ports of the bridge. -span interface Delete the interface named by interface from the list of span ports of the bridge. stp interface Enable Spanning Tree protocol on interface. The bridge(4) driver has support for the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree protocol (STP). Spanning Tree is used to detect and remove loops in a network topology. -stp interface Disable Spanning Tree protocol on interface. This is the default for all interfaces added to a bridge. maxage seconds Set the time that a Spanning Tree protocol configuration is valid. The default is 20 seconds. The minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 255 seconds. fwddelay seconds Set the time that must pass before an interface begins forwarding packets when Spanning Tree is enabled. The default is 15 sec- onds. The minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 255 seconds. hellotime seconds Set the time between broadcasting of Spanning Tree protocol con- figuration messages. The default is 2 seconds. The minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 255 seconds. priority value Set the bridge priority for Spanning Tree. The default is 32768. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 65536. ifpriority interface value Set the Spanning Tree priority of interface to value. The default is 128. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 255. The priority is used to select which interface out of all for- warding and bonded interfaces with the same MAC to output a packet on whe link2 mode is not being used. Note that interfaces in the 'blocking' state do not participate in the priority selec- tion. If the priorities are the same on a non-bonded member, the designated member will be used. ifpathcost interface value Set the Spanning Tree path cost of interface to value. The default is 55. The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 65535. The path cost is added to both incoming and outgoing packets on the member, lower values will make the member more valuable. ifbondweight interface value Set the number of packets to output on a bonded member before round-robining to the next member. The default is 1. Larger values or different values for each member can be used if burst- ing would be beneficial or if the outgoing bandwidth on each of the members is asymmetric. For example, one specify a value of 6 on tap0 and 4 on tap1 for a 6:4 ratio. Remember that this also controls packet bursting. link0 The link0 option enables transparent bridging mode. The bridge will make every effort to retain the ethernet header when for- warding packets between interfaces, making the bridging function work more like a hardware bridge device. link1 The link1 option enables keepalive transmission and automatically places a member into a special blocked mode if no keepalive reception occurs. If either sides of the link uses this option then both sides must use this option. This option is impemented by sending CFG updates on the hello interval to the remote. The link is considered lost after 10 intervals (typically 20 sec- onds). link2 The link2 option enables channel bonding (see also ifbondweight). All member interfaces with the same mac address are considered to be in a bonding group. When something like tap(4) is used, you can manually control or copy the mac to create bonding groups. When interface bonding is enabled normally blocked interfaces belonging to the same bonding group as an active forwarding interface will be changed to the bonding state. Both sides of link the member represents must operate in bonding mode for this to work, otherwise the remote end may decide to throw away half your packets. The following parameters are specific to IP tunnel interfaces, gif(4): tunnel src_addr dest_addr Configure the physical source and destination address for IP tun- nel interfaces. The arguments src_addr and dest_addr are inter- preted as the outer source/destination for the encapsulating IPv4/IPv6 header. -tunnel Unconfigure the physical source and destination address for IP tunnel interfaces previously configured with tunnel. deletetunnel Another name for the -tunnel parameter. The following parameters are specific to vlan(4) interfaces: vlan vlan_tag Set the VLAN tag value to vlan_tag. This value is a 16-bit num- ber which is used to create an 802.1Q VLAN header for packets sent from the vlan(4) interface. Note that vlan and vlandev must both be set at the same time. vlandev iface Associate the physical interface iface with a vlan(4) interface. Packets transmitted through the vlan(4) interface will be diverted to the specified physical interface iface with 802.1Q VLAN encapsulation. Packets with 802.1Q encapsulation received by the parent interface with the correct VLAN tag will be diverted to the associated vlan(4) pseudo-interface. The vlan(4) interface is assigned a copy of the parent interface's flags and the parent's ethernet address. The vlandev and vlan must both be set at the same time. If the vlan(4) interface already has a physical interface associated with it, this command will fail. To change the association to another physical interface, the existing association must be cleared first. Note: if the hardware tagging capability is set on the parent interface, the vlan(4) pseudo interface's behavior changes: the vlan(4) interface recognizes that the parent interface supports insertion and extraction of VLAN tags on its own (usually in firmware) and that it should pass packets to and from the parent unaltered. -vlandev [iface] If the driver is a vlan(4) pseudo device, disassociate the parent interface from it. This breaks the link between the vlan(4) interface and its parent, clears its VLAN tag, flags and its link address and shuts the interface down. The iface argument is use- less and hence deprecated. The following parameters are specific to carp(4) interfaces: advbase seconds Specifies the base of the advertisement interval in seconds. The acceptable values are 1 to 255. The default value is 1. advskew interval Specifies the skew to add to the base advertisement interval to make one host advertise slower than another host. It is speci- fied in 1/256 of seconds. The acceptable values are 1 to 254. The default value is 0. pass phrase Set the authentication key to phrase. vhid n Set the virtual host ID. This is a required setting. Acceptable values are 1 to 255. The ifconfig utility displays the current configuration for a network interface when no optional parameters are supplied. If a protocol family is specified, ifconfig will report only the details specific to that pro- tocol family. If the -m flag is passed before an interface name, ifconfig will display the capability list, the maximum amount of data that TCP segmentation offloading is allowed to aggregate and all of the supported media for the specified interface. If -L flag is supplied, address lifetime is dis- played for IPv6 addresses, as time offset string. Optionally, the -a flag may be used instead of an interface name. This flag instructs ifconfig to display information about all interfaces in the system. The -d flag limits this to interfaces that are down, and -u limits this to interfaces that are up. When no arguments are given, -a is implied. The -l flag may be used to list all available interfaces on the system, with no other additional information. Use of this flag is mutually exclusive with all other flags and commands, except for -d (only list interfaces that are down) and -u (only list interfaces that are up). The -v flag may be used to get more verbose status for an interface. The -C flag may be used to list all of the interface cloners available on the system, with no additional information. Use of this flag is mutually exclusive with all other flags and commands. The -k flag causes keying information for the interface, if available, to be printed. For example, the values of 802.11 WEP keys will be printed, if accessible to the current user. This information is not printed by default, as it may be considered sensitive. Only the super-user may modify the configuration of a network interface.

DIAGNOSTICS

Messages indicating the specified interface does not exist, the requested address is unknown, or the user is not privileged and tried to alter an interface's configuration.

SEE ALSO

netstat(1), carp(4), ifmedia(4), netintro(4), polling(4), vlan(4), rc(8), routed(8), sysctl(8)

HISTORY

The ifconfig utility appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS

Basic IPv6 node operation requires a link-local address on each interface configured for IPv6. Normally, such an address is automatically config- ured by the kernel on each interface added to the system; this behaviour may be disabled by setting the sysctl MIB variable net.inet6.ip6.auto_linklocal to 0. If you delete such an address using ifconfig, the kernel may act very odd. Do this at your own risk. DragonFly 3.9 November 12, 2012 DragonFly 3.9