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GIT(1) Git Manual GIT(1)
git - the stupid content tracker
git [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
full access to internals.
See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see Everyday Git for a
useful minimum set of commands. The Git User's Manual has a more
After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual
Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
an overview of the command line command syntax.
Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation can
be viewed at http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html.
Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.
Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
manual page for that command.
Other options are available to control how the manual page is
displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
... is converted internally into git help ....
Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by
Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
and then exit.
Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
documentation is installed and exit.
Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
of Git and exit.
Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
are installed and exit.
Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
(see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).
Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
path or relative path to current working directory.
Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
config(1) for a more detailed discussion).
Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.
Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
is not set, it is set to the current working directory.
Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
replace(1) for more information.
Treat pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. This is
equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
variable to 1.
We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
ancillary user utilities.
Main porcelain commands
Add file contents to the index.
Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
Create an archive of files from a named tree.
Find by binary search the change that introduced a bug.
List, create, or delete branches.
Move objects and refs by archive.
Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree.
Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
Graphical alternative to git-commit.
Remove untracked files from the working tree.
Clone a repository into a new directory.
Record changes to the repository.
Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit.
Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
Download objects and refs from another repository.
Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
Print lines matching a pattern.
A portable graphical interface to Git.
Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
Show commit logs.
Join two or more development histories together.
Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
Add or inspect object notes.
Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
Update remote refs along with associated objects.
Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head.
Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
Revert some existing commits.
Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
Summarize git log output.
Show various types of objects.
Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
Show the working tree status.
Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
The Git repository browser.
Get and set repository or global options.
Git data exporter.
Backend for fast Git data importers.
(deprecated) Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been
Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
Manage reflog information.
Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
manage set of tracked repositories.
Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.
(deprecated) Get and set repository or global options.
Annotate file lines with commit information.
Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
Find commits not merged upstream.
Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
Show changes using common diff tools.
Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the
Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
Display help information about Git.
Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
Show three-way merge without touching index.
Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
Pick out and massage parameters.
Show branches and their commits.
Check the GPG signature of tags.
Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).
Interacting with Others
These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
via patch over e-mail.
Import an Arch repository into Git.
Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
A CVS server emulator for Git.
Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
Generates a summary of pending changes.
Send a collection of patches as emails.
Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.
LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)
Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
index(1) and git-read-tree(1).
The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are
subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.
The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
objects and references between repositories.
Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
Copy files from the index to the working tree.
Create a new commit object.
Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
Run a three-way file merge.
Run a merge for files needing merging.
Creates a tag object.
Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
Create a packed archive of objects.
Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
Reads tree information into the index.
Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
Unpack objects from a packed archive.
Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
Create a tree object from the current index.
Provide content or type and size information for repository
Compares files in the working tree and the index.
Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
Output information on each ref.
Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
List references in a remote repository.
List the contents of a tree object.
Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
Find symbolic names for given revs.
Find redundant pack files.
Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
Show packed archive index.
List references in a local repository.
(deprecated) Create a tar archive of the files in the named tree
Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
Show a Git logical variable.
Validate packed Git archive files.
In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
A really simple server for Git repositories.
Receive missing objects from another repository.
Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.
The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
typically do not use them directly.
Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.
Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
Receive what is pushed into the repository.
Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
Send archive back to git-archive.
Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.
Internal helper commands
These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
typically do not use them directly.
Display gitattributes information.
Debug gitignore / exclude files.
Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
Display data in columns.
Retrieve and store user credentials.
Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
Helper to store credentials on disk.
Produce a merge commit message.
Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
Compute unique ID for a patch.
(deprecated) List the references in a remote repository.
Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
Common Git shell script setup code.
Remove unnecessary whitespace.
Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like
# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
; core variables
; Don't trust file modes
filemode = false
; user identity
name = "Junio C Hamano"
email = "firstname.lastname@example.org"
Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
about the configuration mechanism.
Indicates the object name for any type of object.
Indicates a blob object name.
Indicates a tree object name.
Indicates a commit object name.
Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
<tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
point at a <tree>.
Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
<commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a
Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
tree, commit, or tag.
Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
indicates the head of the current branch.
a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).
a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).
Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.
Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.
Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
Please see gitglossary(7).
Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
The Git Repository
These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
so take care if using Cogito etc.
This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.
If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.
Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
objects will not be written to these directories.
If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.
Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
controlled by the --work-tree command line option and the
core.worktree configuration variable.
Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
--namespace command-line option also sets this value.
This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current
working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the
environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them
with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow,
you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries.
Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.
GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME,
GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL
Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
Git diff command line.
When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:
path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of
are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
are the octal representation of the file modes.
The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.
new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g. old-file when a new
file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the index).
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary
file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)
This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).
This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to
be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-
If this environment variable is set then git fetch and git push
will use this command instead of ssh when they need to connect to a
remote system. The $GIT_SSH command will be given exactly two or
four arguments: the username@host (or just host) from the URL and
the shell command to execute on that remote system, optionally
preceded by -p (literally) and the port from the URL when it
specifies something other than the default SSH port.
To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH you
will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script, then
set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation
for further details.
If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
command line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
also the core.askpass option in git-config(1).
Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
with sufficient permissions to fix it.
If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
check-attr, git check-ignore, and git whatchanged will force a
flush of the output stream after each record have been flushed. If
this variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be
done using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based
on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
insensitive), Git will print trace: messages on stderr telling
about alias expansion, built-in command execution and external
command execution. If this variable is set to an integer value
greater than 1 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret
this value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
trace messages into this file descriptor. Alternatively, if this
variable is set to an absolute path (starting with a / character),
Git will interpret this as a file path and will try to write the
trace messages into it.
If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at the
given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each access, the
pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded. This may be
helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related performance problems.
If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets coming in
or out of a given program. This can help with debugging object
negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a
packet starting with "PACK".
Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output,
More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
of the user-manual and gitcore-tutorial(7).
A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
as tags and branch heads.
The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
and some number of parent commits.
The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD
contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
content stored in the index.
The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
See the references in the "description" section to get started using
Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual and gitcore-tutorial(7)
both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
See also the howto documents for some useful examples.
The internals are documented in the Git API documentation.
Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).
Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary gives you a more
complete list of contributors.
If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the
Report bugs to the Git mailing list <email@example.com> where the
development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
subscribed to the list to send a message there.
gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), Everyday Git, gitcvs-migration(7),
gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
Part of the git(1) suite
1. Everyday Git
2. Git User's Manual
3. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
5. Git API documentation
Git 220.127.116.11 09/27/2013 GIT(1)