DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages

DOT(1)									DOT(1)

NAME

dot - filter for drawing directed graphs neato - filter for drawing undirected graphs twopi - filter for radial layouts of graphs circo - filter for circular layout of graphs fdp - filter for drawing undirected graphs sfdp - filter for drawing large undirected graphs patchwork - filter for tree maps

SYNOPSIS

dot [options] [files] neato [options] [files] twopi [options] [files] circle [options] [files] fdp [options] [files] sfdp [options] [files] patchwork [options] [files]

DESCRIPTION

These are a collection of programs for drawing graphs. There is actu- ally only one main program; the specific layout algorithms implemented as plugins. Thus, they largely share all of the same command-line options. dot draws directed graphs. It works well on DAGs and other graphs that can be drawn as hierarchies. neato draws undirected graphs using ``spring'' models (see Kamada and Kawai, Information Processing Letters 31:1, April 1989). twopi draws graphs using a radial layout (see G. Wills, Symposium on Graph Drawing GD'97, September, 1997). Basically, one node is chosen as the center and put at the origin. The remaining nodes are placed on a sequence of concentric circles centered about the origin, each a fixed radial distance from the previous circle. All nodes distance 1 from the center are placed on the first circle; all nodes distance 1 from a node on the first circle are placed on the second circle; and so forth. circo draws graphs using a circular layout (see Six and Tollis, GD '99 and ALENEX '99, and Kaufmann and Wiese, GD '02.) The tool identifies biconnected components and draws the nodes of the component on a cir- cle. The block-cutpoint tree is then laid out using a recursive radial algorithm. Edge crossings within a circle are minimized by placing as many edges on the circle's perimeter as possible. In particular, if the component is outerplanar, the component will have a planar layout. If a node belongs to multiple non-trivial biconnected components, the layout puts the node in one of them. By default, this is the first non- trivial component found in the search from the root component. fdp draws undirected graphs using a ``spring'' model. It relies on a force-directed approach in the spirit of Fruchterman and Reingold (cf. Software-Practice & Experience 21(11), 1991, pp. 1129-1164). sfdp also draws undirected graphs using the ``spring'' model described above, but it uses a multi-scale approach to produce layouts of large graphs in a reasonably short time. patchwork draws the graph as a squarified treemap (see M. Bruls et al., "Squarified treemaps", Proc. Joint Eurographics and IEEE TCVG Symp. on Visualization, 2000, pp. 33-42). The clusters of the graph are used to specify the tree.

OUTPUT FORMATS

Graphviz uses an extensible plugin mechanism for its output renderers, so to see what output formats your installation of dot supports you can use ``dot -Txxx'' (where xxx is an unlikely format) and check the warn- ing message. Also, The plugin mechanism supports multiple implementa- tions of the output formats. To see what variants are available, use, for example: ``dot -Tpng:'' and to force a particular variant, use, for example: ``dot -Tpng:gd'' Traditionally, Graphviz supports the following: -Tps (PostScript), -Tsvg -Tsvgz (Structured Vector Graphics), -Tfig (XFIG graphics), -Tpng -Tgif (bitmap graphics), -Timap (imagemap files for httpd servers for each node or edge that has a non-null "href" attribute.), -Tcmapx (client-side imagemap for use in html and xhtml). Additional less common or more special-purpose output formats can be found at //http://www.graphviz.org/content/output-formats. Alternative plugins providing support for a given output format can be found from the error message resulting from appending a ':' to the for- mat. e.g. -Tpng: The first plugin listed is always the default. The -P switch can be used to produce a graph of all output variants supported by plugins in the local installation of graphviz.

GRAPH FILE LANGUAGE

Here is a synopsis of the graph file language, normally using the extension .gv, for graphs: [strict] (graph|digraph) name { statement-list } is the top-level graph. If the graph is strict, then multiple edges are not allowed between the same pairs of nodes. If it is a directed graph, indicated by digraph, then the edgeop must be "->". If it is an undirected graph then the edgeop must be "--". Statements may be: name=val; node [name=val]; edge [name=val]; Set default graph, node, or edge attribute name to val. Any subgraph, node, or edge appearing after this inherits the new default attributes. n0 [name0=val0,name1=val1,...]; Creates node n0 (if it does not already exist) and sets its attributes according to the optional list. n0 edgeop n1 edgeop ... edgeop nn [name0=val0,name1=val1,...]; Creates edges between nodes n0, n1, ..., nn and sets their attributes according to the optional list. Creates nodes as necessary. [subgraph name] { statement-list } Creates a subgraph. Subgraphs may be used in place of n0, ..., nn in the above statements to create edges. [subgraph name] is optional; if missing, the subgraph is assigned an internal name. Comments may be /*C-like*/ or //C++-like. Attribute names and values are ordinary (C-style) strings. The follow- ing sections describe attributes that control graph layout. A more complete description of the language can be found at http://www.graphviz.org/content/dot-language.

GRAPH, NODE AND EDGE ATTRIBUTES

Graphviz uses the name=value attributes, attached to graphs, subgraphs, nodes and edges, to tailor the layout and rendering. We list the more prominent attributes below. The complete list is available at http://www.graphviz.org/content/attrs. Graph Attributes size="x,y" specifies the maximum bounding box of drawing in inches. ratio=f sets the aspect ratio to f which may be a floating point num- ber, or one of the keywords fill, compress, or auto. layout=engine indicates the preferred layout engine ("dot", "neato", fdp" etc) overriding the default from the basename of the command or the -K commandline option. margin=f sets the page margin (included in the page size). nodesep=f sets the minimum separation between nodes. ranksep=f sets the minimum separation between ranks. ordering=out constrains order of out-edges in a subgraph according to their file sequence. rankdir=LR|RL|BT requests a left-to-right, right-to-left, or bottom-to- top, drawing. rank=same (or min or max) in a subgraph constrains the rank assignment of its nodes. If a subgraph's name has the prefix cluster, its nodes are drawn in a distinct rectangle of the layout. Clusters may be nested. rotate=90 sets landscape mode. (orientation=land is backward compati- ble but obsolete.) center=n a non-zero value centers the drawing on the page. color=colorvalue sets foreground color (bgcolor for background). href="url" the default url for image map files; in PostScript files, the base URL for all relative URLs, as recognized by Acrobat Distiller 3.0 and up. URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".) stylesheet="file.css" includes a reference to a stylesheet in -Tsvg and -Tsvgz outputs. Ignored by other formats. splines If set to true, edges are drawn as splines. If set to poly- line, edges are drawn as polylines. If set to ortho, edges are drawn as orthogonal polylines. In all of these cases, the nodes may not overlap. If splines=false or splines=line, edges are drawn as line segments. The default is true for dot, and false for all other lay- outs. (neato-specific attributes) start=val. Requests random initial placement and seeds the random num- ber generator. If val is not an integer, the process ID or current time is used as the seed. epsilon=n. Sets the cutoff for the solver. The default is 0.1. (twopi-specific attributes) root=ctr. This specifies the node to be used as the center of the lay- out. If not specified, twopi will randomly pick one of the nodes that are furthest from a leaf node, where a leaf node is a node of degree 1. If no leaf nodes exists, an arbitrary node is picked as center. ranksep=val. Specifies the radial distance in inches between the sequence of rings. The default is 0.75. overlap=mode. This specifies what twopi should do if any nodes overlap. If mode is "false", the program uses Voronoi diagrams to adjust the nodes to eliminate overlaps. If mode is "scale", the layout is uni- formly scaled up, preserving node sizes, until nodes no longer overlap. The latter technique removes overlaps while preserving symmetry and structure, while the former removes overlaps more compactly but destroys symmetries. If mode is "true" (the default), no repositioning is done. (circo-specific attributes) root=nodename. Specifies the name of a node occurring in the root block. If the graph is disconnected, the root node attribute can be used to specify additional root blocks. mindist=value. Sets the minimum separation between all nodes. If not specified then circo uses a default value of 1.0. (fdp-specific attributes) K=val. Sets the default ideal node separation in the layout. maxiter=val. Sets the maximum number of iterations used to layout the graph. start=val. Adjusts the random initial placement of nodes with no speci- fied position. If val is is an integer, it is used as the seed for the random number generator. If val is not an integer, a random system- generated integer, such as the process ID or current time, is used as the seed. Node Attributes height=d or width=d sets minimum height or width. Adding fixed- size=true forces these to be the actual size (text labels are ignored). shape=record polygon epsf builtin_shape builtin_polygon can be plaintext ellipse oval circle egg triangle box diamond trapezium parallelogram house hexagon octagon note tab box3d component, among others. (Polygons are defined or modified by the fol- lowing node attributes: regular, peripheries, sides, orientation, dis- tortion and skew.) epsf uses the node's shapefile attribute as the path name of an external EPSF file to be automatically loaded for the node shape. See http://www.graphviz.org/content/node-shapes for a complete descrip- tion of node shapes. label=text where text may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for center, left, and right justified lines. The string '\N' value will be replaced by the node name. The string '\G' value will be replaced by the graph name. Record labels may contain recursive box lists delim- ited by { | }. Port identifiers in labels are set off by angle brack- ets < >. In the graph file, use colon (such as, node0:port28). Graphviz also supports special HTML-like labels for constructing com- plex node content. A full-description of these is given at http://www.graphviz.org/content/node-shapes#html. fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points. fontname=name sets the label font family name. color=colorvalue sets the outline color, and the default fill color if style=filled and fillcolor is not specified. fillcolor=colorvalue sets the fill color when style=filled. If not specified, the fillcolor when style=filled defaults to be the same as the outline color. fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color. A colorvalue may be "h,s,v" (hue, saturation, brightness) floating point numbers between 0 and 1, or an X11 color name such as white black red green blue yellow magenta cyan or burlywood, or a "#rrggbb" (red, green, blue, 2 hex characters each) value. style=filled solid dashed dotted bold invis or any Postscript code. href="url" sets the url for the node in imagemap, PostScript and SVG files. The substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the node label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the node label string. URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".) target="target" is a target string for client-side imagemaps and SVG, effective when nodes have a URL. The target string is used to deter- mine which window of the browser is used for the URL. Setting it to "_graphviz" will open a new window if it doesn't already exist, or re- use it if it does. If the target string is empty, the default, then no target attribute is included in the output. The substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the node label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the node label string. tooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client-side imagemaps and SVG, effective when nodes have a URL. The tooltip string defaults to be the same as the label string, but this attribute permits nodes with- out labels to still have tooltips thus permitting denser graphs. The substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the node label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the node label string. The following attributes apply only to polygon shape nodes: regular=n if n is non-zero then the polygon is made regular, i.e. sym- metric about the x and y axis, otherwise the polygon takes on the aspect ratio of the label. builtin_polygons that are not already regu- lar are made regular by this attribute. builtin_polygons that are already regular are not affected (i.e. they cannot be made asymmet- ric). peripheries=n sets the number of periphery lines drawn around the poly- gon. This value supersedes the number of periphery lines of builtin_polygons. sides=n sets the number of sides to the polygon. n<3 results in an ellipse. This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons. orientation=f sets the orientation of the first apex of the polygon counterclockwise from the vertical, in degrees. f may be a floating point number. The orientation of labels is not affected by this attribute. This attribute is added to the initial orientation of builtin_polygons. distortion=f sets the amount of broadening of the top and narrowing of the bottom of the polygon (relative to its orientation). Floating point values between -1 and +1 are suggested. This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons. skew=f sets the amount of right-displacement of the top and left-dis- placement of the bottom of the polygon (relative to its orientation). Floating point values between -1 and +1 are suggested. This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons. (circo-specific attributes) root=true/false. This specifies that the block containing the given node be treated as the root of the spanning tree in the layout. (fdp-specific attributes) pin=val. If val is "true", the node will remain at its initial posi- tion. Edge Attributes minlen=n where n is an integer factor that applies to the edge length (ranks for normal edges, or minimum node separation for flat edges). weight=n where n is the integer cost of the edge. Values greater than 1 tend to shorten the edge. Weight 0 flat edges are ignored for order- ing nodes. label=text where text may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for centered, left, or right justified lines. If the substring '\T' is found in a label it will be replaced by the tail_node name. If the substring '\H' is found in a label it will be replaced by the head_node name. If the substring '\E' value is found in a label it will be replaced by: tail_node_name->head_node_name If the substring '\G' is found in a label it will be replaced by the graph name. or by: tail_node_name--head_node_name for undirected graphs. fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points. fontname=name sets the label font family name. fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color. style=solid dashed dotted bold invis color=colorvalue sets the line color for edges. color=colorvaluelist a ':' separated list of colorvalue creates paral- lel edges, one edge for each color. dir=forward back both none controls arrow direction. tailclip,headclip=false disables endpoint shape clipping. href="url" sets the url for the node in imagemap, PostScript and SVG files. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the sub- string '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".) target="target" is a target string for client-side imagemaps and SVG, effective when edges have a URL. If the target string is empty, the default, then no target attribute is included in the output. The sub- strings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is sub- stituted with the edge label string. tooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client-side imagemaps effec- tive when edges have a URL. The tooltip string defaults to be the same as the edge label string. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Addi- tionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. arrowhead,arrowtail=none, normal, inv, dot, odot, invdot, invodot, tee, empty, invempty, open, halfopen, diamond, odiamond, box, obox, crow. arrowsize (norm_length=10,norm_width=5, inv_length=6,inv_width=7,dot_radius=2) headlabel,taillabel=string for port labels. labelfontcolor,labelfont- name,labelfontsize for head and tail labels. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. headhref="url" sets the url for the head port in imagemap, PostScript and SVG files. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substi- tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. headURL="url" ("headURL" is a synonym for "headhref".) headtarget="headtarget" is a target string for client-side imagemaps and SVG, effective when edge heads have a URL. The headtarget string is used to determine which window of the browser is used for the URL. If the headtarget string is empty, the default, then headtarget defaults to the same value as target for the edge. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. headtooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client-side imagemaps effective when head ports have a URL. The tooltip string defaults to be the same as the headlabel string. The substrings '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. tailhref="url" sets the url for the tail port in imagemap, PostScript and SVG files. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substi- tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. tailURL="url" ("tailURL" is a synonym for "tailhref".) tailtarget="tailtarget" is a target string for client-side imagemaps and SVG, effective when edge tails have a URL. The tailtarget string is used to determine which window of the browser is used for the URL. If the tailtarget string is empty, the default, then tailtarget defaults to the same value as target for the edge. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. tailtooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip string for client-side imagemaps effective when tail ports have a URL. The tooltip string defaults to be the same as the taillabel string. The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute. Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string. labeldistance and labelangle (in degrees CCW) specify the placement of head and tail labels. decorate draws line from edge to label. samehead,sametail aim edges having the same value to the same port, using the average landing point. constraint=false causes an edge to be ignored for rank assignment. layer=id or id:id or "all" sets the edge's active layers. The empty string means no layers (invisible). (neato-specific attributes) w=f sets the weight (spring constant) of an edge to the given floating point value. The default is 1.0; greater values make the edge tend more toward its optimal length. len=f sets the optimal length of an edge. The default is 1.0. (fdp-specific attributes) weight=f sets the weight of an edge to the given floating point value. The default is 1.0; greater values make the edge tend more toward its optimal length. COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS -G sets a default graph attribute. -N sets a default node attribute. -E sets a default edge attribute. Example: -Gsize="7,8" -Nshape=box -Efontsize=8 -lfile loads custom PostScript library files. Usually these define custom shapes or styles. If -l is given by itself, the standard library is omitted. -Tlang sets the output language as described above. -n[1|2] (no-op) If set, neato assumes nodes have already been posi- tioned and all nodes have a pos attribute giving the positions. It then performs an optional adjustment to remove node-node overlap, depending on the value of the overlap attribute, computes the edge lay- outs, depending on the value of the splines attribute, and emits the graph in the appropriate format. If num is supplied, the following actions occur: num = 1 Equivalent to -n. num > 1 Use node positions as specified, with no adjustment to remove node-node overlaps, and use any edge layouts already specified by the pos attribute. neato computes an edge layout for any edge that does not have a pos attribute. As usual, edge layout is guided by the splines attribute. -Klayout override the default layout engine implied by the command name. -O automatically generate output filenames based on the input filename and the -T format. -P generate a graph of the currently available plugins. -v (verbose) prints various information useful for debugging. -c configure plugins. -m memory test (observe no growth with top, kill when done). -qlevel set level of message suppression. The default is 1. -sfscale scale input by fscale, the default is 72. -y invert y coordinate in output. -V (version) prints version information and exits. -? prints the usage and exits. A complete description of the available command-line options can be found at http://www.graphviz.org/content/command-line-invocation.

EXAMPLES

digraph test123 { a -> b -> c; a -> {x y}; b [shape=box]; c [label="hello\nworld",color=blue,fontsize=24, fontname="Palatino-Italic",fontcolor=red,style=filled]; a -> z [label="hi", weight=100]; x -> z [label="multi-line\nlabel"]; edge [style=dashed,color=red]; b -> x; {rank=same; b x} } graph test123 { a -- b -- c; a -- {x y}; x -- c [w=10.0]; x -- y [w=5.0,len=3]; }

CAVEATS

Edge splines can overlap unintentionally. Flat edge labels are slightly broken. Intercluster edge labels are totally broken. Because unconstrained optimization is employed, node boxes can possibly overlap or touch unrelated edges. All existing spring embedders seem to have this limitation. Apparently reasonable attempts to pin nodes or adjust edge lengths and weights can cause instability.

AUTHORS

Stephen C. North <north@research.att.com> Emden R. Gansner <erg@research.att.com> John C. Ellson <ellson@research.att.com> Yifan Hu <yifanhu@research.att.com> The bitmap driver (PNG, GIF etc) is by Thomas Boutell, <http://www.boutell.com/gd> The Truetype font renderer is from the Freetype Project (David Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and Werner Lemberg) (who can be contacted at freetype-devel@lists.lrz-muenchen.de).

SEE ALSO

This man page contains only a small amount of the information related to the Graphviz layout programs. The most complete information can be found at http://www.graphviz.org/Documentation.php, especially in the on-line reference pages. Most of these documents are also available in the doc and doc/info subtrees in the source and binary distributions. dotty(1) tcldot(n) xcolors(1) libgraph(3) E. R. Gansner, S. C. North, K. P. Vo, "DAG - A Program to Draw Directed Graphs", Software - Practice and Experience 17(1), 1988, pp. 1047-1062. E. R. Gansner, E. Koutsofios, S. C. North, K. P. Vo, "A Technique for Drawing Directed Graphs," IEEE Trans. on Soft. Eng. 19(3), 1993, pp. 214-230. S. North and E. Koutsofios, "Applications of graph visualization", Graphics Interface 94, pp. 234-245. E.R. Gansner and E. Koutsofios and S. C. North, "Drawing Graphs with dot," Available at http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/dotguide.pdf. S. C. North, "NEATO User's Manual". Available http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/neatoguide.pdf. 12 July 2013 DOT(1)