DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages
DGST(1) OpenSSL DGST(1)
dgst, sha, sha1, mdc2, ripemd160, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, md2,
md4, md5, dss1 - message digests
[-c] [-d] [-hex] [-binary] [-r] [-out filename] [-sign filename]
[-keyform arg] [-passin arg] [-verify filename] [-prverify filename]
[-signature filename] [-hmac key] [-non-fips-allow] [-fips-fingerprint]
openssl [digest] [...]
The digest functions output the message digest of a supplied file or
files in hexadecimal. The digest functions also generate and verify
digital signatures using message digests.
-c print out the digest in two digit groups separated by colons, only
relevant if hex format output is used.
-d print out BIO debugging information.
digest is to be output as a hex dump. This is the default case for
a "normal" digest as opposed to a digital signature. See NOTES
below for digital signatures using -hex.
output the digest or signature in binary form.
-r output the digest in the "coreutils" format used by programs like
filename to output to, or standard output by default.
digitally sign the digest using the private key in "filename".
Specifies the key format to sign digest with. The DER, PEM, P12,
and ENGINE formats are supported.
Use engine id for operations (including private key storage). This
engine is not used as source for digest algorithms, unless it is
also specified in the configuration file.
Pass options to the signature algorithm during sign or verify
operations. Names and values of these options are algorithm-
the private key password source. For more information about the
format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
verify the signature using the the public key in "filename". The
output is either "Verification OK" or "Verification Failure".
verify the signature using the the private key in "filename".
the actual signature to verify.
create a hashed MAC using "key".
create MAC (keyed Message Authentication Code). The most popular
MAC algorithm is HMAC (hash-based MAC), but there are other MAC
algorithms which are not based on hash, for instance gost-mac
algorithm, supported by ccgost engine. MAC keys and other options
should be set via -macopt parameter.
Passes options to MAC algorithm, specified by -mac key. Following
options are supported by both by HMAC and gost-mac:
Specifies MAC key as alphnumeric string (use if key contain
printable characters only). String length must conform to
any restrictions of the MAC algorithm for example exactly
32 chars for gost-mac.
Specifies MAC key in hexadecimal form (two hex digits per
byte). Key length must conform to any restrictions of the
MAC algorithm for example exactly 32 chars for gost-mac.
a file or files containing random data used to seed the random
number generator, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)). Multiple
files can be specified separated by a OS-dependent character. The
separator is ; for MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all others.
enable use of non-FIPS algorithms such as MD5 even in FIPS mode.
compute HMAC using a specific key for certain OpenSSL-FIPS
file or files to digest. If no files are specified then standard
input is used.
To create a hex-encoded message digest of a file:
openssl dgst -md5 -hex file.txt
To sign a file using SHA-256 with binary file output:
openssl dgst -sha256 -sign privatekey.pem -out signature.sign file.txt
To verify a signature:
openssl dgst -sha256 -verify publickey.pem \
-signature signature.sign \
The digest of choice for all new applications is SHA1. Other digests
are however still widely used.
When signing a file, dgst will automatically determine the algorithm
(RSA, ECC, etc) to use for signing based on the private key's ASN.1
info. When verifying signatures, it only handles the RSA, DSA, or
ECDSA signature itself, not the related data to identify the signer and
algorithm used in formats such as x.509, CMS, and S/MIME.
A source of random numbers is required for certain signing algorithms,
in particular ECDSA and DSA.
The signing and verify options should only be used if a single file is
being signed or verified.
Hex signatures cannot be verified using openssl. Instead, use "xxd -r"
or similar program to transform the hex signature into a binary
signature prior to verification.
1.0.1j 2014-10-15 DGST(1)