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AWK(1)									AWK(1)

awk

NAME

awk - pattern-directed scanning and processing language

SYNOPSIS

awk [ -F fs ] [ -v var=value ] [ 'prog' | -f progfile ] [ file ... ]

DESCRIPTION

Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every pattern-action state- ment; the associated action is performed for each matched pattern. The file name - means the standard input. Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment, not a filename, and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename. The option -v followed by var=value is an assignment to be done before prog is exe- cuted; any number of -v options may be present. The -F fs option defines the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. An input line is normally made up of fields separated by white space, or by regular expression FS. The fields are denoted $1, $2, ..., while $0 refers to the entire line. If FS is null, the input line is split into one field per character. A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line; a missing pattern always matches. Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semi- colons. An action is a sequence of statements. A statement can be one of the following: if( expression ) statement [ else statement ] while( expression ) statement for( expression ; expression ; expression ) statement for( var in array ) statement do statement while( expression ) break continue { [ statement ... ] } expression # commonly var = expression print [ expression-list ] [ > expression ] printf format [ , expression-list ] [ > expression ] return [ expression ] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file, open next, start at top delete array[ expression ]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [ expression ] # exit immediately; status is expression Statements are terminated by semicolons, newlines or right braces. An empty expression-list stands for $0. String constants are quoted " ", with the usual C escapes recognized within. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate, and are built using the operators * - * / % ^ (exponentiation), and concatenation (indicated by white space). The operators ! ++ -- += -= *= /= %= ^= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions. Variables may be scalars, array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. Variables are initialized to the null string. Array subscripts may be any string, not necessarily numeric; this allows for a form of associative memory. Multiple subscripts such as [i,j,k] are permitted; the constituents are concatenated, separated by the value of SUBSEP. The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if |cmd is present), separated by the current output field separator, and terminated by the output record separator. file and cmd may be literal names or paren- thesized expressions; identical string values in different statements denote the same open file. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)). The built-in function close(expr) closes the file or pipe expr. The built-in function fflush(expr) flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr. The mathematical functions exp, log, sqrt, sin, cos, and atan2 are built in. Other built-in functions: length the length of its argument taken as a string, or of $0 if no argument. rand random number on (0,1) srand sets seed for rand and returns the previous seed. int truncates to an integer value substr(s, m, n) the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1. index(s, t) the position in s where the string t occurs, or 0 if it does not. match(s, r) the position in s where the regular expression r occurs, or 0 if it does not. The variables RSTART and RLENGTH are set to the position and length of the matched string. split(s, a, fs) splits the string s into array elements a[1], a[2], ..., a[n], and returns n. The separation is done with the regular expres- sion fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character. sub(r, t, s) substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s. If s is not given, $0 is used. gsub same as sub except that all occurrences of the regular expres- sion are replaced; sub and gsub return the number of replace- ments. sprintf(fmt, expr, ... ) the string resulting from formatting expr ... according to the printf(3) format fmt system(cmd) executes cmd and returns its exit status tolower(str) returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents. toupper(str) returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents. The ``function'' getline sets $0 to the next input record from the cur- rent input file; getline <file sets $0 to the next record from file. getline x sets variable x instead. Finally, cmd | getline pipes the output of cmd into getline; each call of getline returns the next line of output from cmd. In all cases, getline returns 1 for a successful input, 0 for end of file, and -1 for an error. Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions. Regular expressions are as in egrep; see grep(1). Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line. Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions, using the operators ~ and !~. /re/ is a constant regular expression; any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression, except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma; in this case, the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern though an occurrence of the second. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr,expr,...) in array-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C, and a matchop is either ~ (matches) or !~ (does not match). A conditional is an arithmetic expression, a relational expression, or a Boolean combi- nation of these. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last. BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. Variable names with special meanings: CONVFMT conversion format used when converting numbers (default %.6g) FS regular expression used to separate fields; also settable by option -Ffs. NF number of fields in the current record NR ordinal number of the current record FNR ordinal number of the current record in the current file FILENAME the name of the current input file RS input record separator (default newline) OFS output field separator (default blank) ORS output record separator (default newline) OFMT output format for numbers (default %.6g) SUBSEP separates multiple subscripts (default 034) ARGC argument count, assignable ARGV argument array, assignable; non-null members are taken as file- names ENVIRON array of environment variables; subscripts are names. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action state- ment) thus: function foo(a, b, c) { ...; return x } Parameters are passed by value if scalar and by reference if array name; functions may be called recursively. Parameters are local to the function; all other variables are global. Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition.

EXAMPLES

length($0) > 72 Print lines longer than 72 characters. { print $2, $1 } Print first two fields in opposite order. BEGIN { FS = ",[ \t]*|[ \t]+" } { print $2, $1 } Same, with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs. { s += $1 } END { print "sum is", s, " average is", s/NR } Add up first column, print sum and average. /start/, /stop/ Print all lines between start/stop pairs. BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1; i < ARGC; i++) printf "%s ", ARGV[i] printf "\n" exit }

SEE ALSO

lex(1), sed(1) A. V. Aho, B. W. Kernighan, P. J. Weinberger, The AWK Programming Lan- guage, Addison-Wesley, 1988. ISBN 0-201-07981-X

BUGS

There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it; to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch; the syntax is worse. AWK(1)