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PIPE(8) 							       PIPE(8)

NAME

pipe - Postfix delivery to external command

SYNOPSIS

pipe [generic Postfix daemon options] command_attributes...

DESCRIPTION

The pipe(8) daemon processes requests from the Postfix queue manager to deliver messages to external commands. This program expects to be run from the master(8) process manager. Message attributes such as sender address, recipient address and next-hop host name can be specified as command-line macros that are expanded before the external command is executed. The pipe(8) daemon updates queue files and marks recipients as fin- ished, or it informs the queue manager that delivery should be tried again at a later time. Delivery status reports are sent to the bounce(8), defer(8) or trace(8) daemon as appropriate. SINGLE-RECIPIENT DELIVERY Some destinations cannot handle more than one recipient per delivery request. Examples are pagers or fax machines. In addition, multi-recipient delivery is undesirable when prepending a Delivered-to: or X-Original-To: message header. To prevent Postfix from sending multiple recipients per delivery request, specify transport_destination_recipient_limit = 1 in the Postfix main.cf file, where transport is the name in the first column of the Postfix master.cf entry for the pipe-based delivery transport.

COMMAND ATTRIBUTE SYNTAX

The external command attributes are given in the master.cf file at the end of a service definition. The syntax is as follows: chroot=pathname (optional) Change the process root directory and working directory to the named directory. This happens before switching to the privileges specified with the user attribute, and before executing the optional directory=pathname directive. Delivery is deferred in case of failure. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.3. directory=pathname (optional) Change to the named directory before executing the external com- mand. The directory must be accessible for the user specified with the user attribute (see below). The default working direc- tory is $queue_directory. Delivery is deferred in case of fail- ure. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. eol=string (optional, default: \n) The output record delimiter. Typically one would use either \r\n or \n. The usual C-style backslash escape sequences are recog- nized: \a \b \f \n \r \t \v \ddd (up to three octal digits) and \\. flags=BDFORXhqu.> (optional) Optional message processing flags. By default, a message is copied unchanged. B Append a blank line at the end of each message. This is required by some mail user agents that recognize "From " lines only when preceded by a blank line. D Prepend a "Delivered-To: recipient" message header with the envelope recipient address. Note: for this to work, the transport_destination_recipient_limit must be 1 (see SINGLE-RECIPIENT DELIVERY above for details). The D flag also enforces loop detection (Postfix 2.5 and later): if a message already contains a Delivered-To: header with the same recipient address, then the message is returned as undeliverable. The address comparison is case insensitive. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.0. F Prepend a "From sender time_stamp" envelope header to the message content. This is expected by, for example, UUCP software. O Prepend an "X-Original-To: recipient" message header with the recipient address as given to Postfix. Note: for this to work, the transport_destination_recipient_limit must be 1 (see SINGLE-RECIPIENT DELIVERY above for details). This feature is available as of Postfix 2.0. R Prepend a Return-Path: message header with the envelope sender address. X Indicate that the external command performs final deliv- ery. This flag affects the status reported in "success" DSN (delivery status notification) messages, and changes it from "relayed" into "delivered". This feature is available as of Postfix 2.5. h Fold the command-line $original_recipient and $recipient address domain part (text to the right of the right-most @ character) to lower case; fold the entire command-line $domain and $nexthop host or domain information to lower case. This is recommended for delivery via UUCP. q Quote white space and other special characters in the command-line $sender, $original_recipient and $recipient address localparts (text to the left of the right-most @ character), according to an 8-bit transparent version of RFC 822. This is recommended for delivery via UUCP or BSMTP. The result is compatible with the address parsing of com- mand-line recipients by the Postfix sendmail(1) mail sub- mission command. The q flag affects only entire addresses, not the partial address information from the $user, $extension or $mail- box command-line macros. u Fold the command-line $original_recipient and $recipient address localpart (text to the left of the right-most @ character) to lower case. This is recommended for deliv- ery via UUCP. . Prepend "." to lines starting with ".". This is needed by, for example, BSMTP software. > Prepend ">" to lines starting with "From ". This is expected by, for example, UUCP software. null_sender=replacement (default: MAILER-DAEMON) Replace the null sender address (typically used for delivery status notifications) with the specified text when expanding the $sender command-line macro, and when generating a From_ or Return-Path: message header. If the null sender replacement text is a non-empty string then it is affected by the q flag for address quoting in command-line arguments. The null sender replacement text may be empty; this form is rec- ommended for content filters that feed mail back into Postfix. The empty sender address is not affected by the q flag for address quoting in command-line arguments. Caution: a null sender address is easily mis-parsed by naive software. For example, when the pipe(8) daemon executes a com- mand such as: Wrong: command -f$sender -- $recipient the command will mis-parse the -f option value when the sender address is a null string. For correct parsing, specify $sender as an argument by itself: Right: command -f $sender -- $recipient This feature is available as of Postfix 2.3. size=size_limit (optional) Don't deliver messages that exceed this size limit (in bytes); return them to the sender instead. user=username (required) user=username:groupname Execute the external command with the user ID and group ID of the specified username. The software refuses to execute com- mands with root privileges, or with the privileges of the mail system owner. If groupname is specified, the corresponding group ID is used instead of the group ID of username. argv=command... (required) The command to be executed. This must be specified as the last command attribute. The command is executed directly, i.e. with- out interpretation of shell meta characters by a shell command interpreter. Specify "{" and "}" around command arguments that contain white- space (Postfix 3.0 and later). Whitespace after "{" and before "}" is ignored. In the command argument vector, the following macros are recog- nized and replaced with corresponding information from the Post- fix queue manager delivery request. In addition to the form ${name}, the forms $name and the depre- cated form $(name) are also recognized. Specify $$ where a sin- gle $ is wanted. ${client_address} This macro expands to the remote client network address. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. ${client_helo} This macro expands to the remote client HELO command parameter. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. ${client_hostname} This macro expands to the remote client hostname. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. ${client_port} This macro expands to the remote client TCP port number. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.5. ${client_protocol} This macro expands to the remote client protocol. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. ${domain} This macro expands to the domain portion of the recipient address. For example, with an address user+foo@domain the domain is domain. This information is modified by the h flag for case fold- ing. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.5. ${extension} This macro expands to the extension part of a recipient address. For example, with an address user+foo@domain the extension is foo. A command-line argument that contains ${extension} expands into as many command-line arguments as there are recipients. This information is modified by the u flag for case fold- ing. ${mailbox} This macro expands to the complete local part of a recip- ient address. For example, with an address user+foo@domain the mailbox is user+foo. A command-line argument that contains ${mailbox} expands to as many command-line arguments as there are recipi- ents. This information is modified by the u flag for case fold- ing. ${nexthop} This macro expands to the next-hop hostname. This information is modified by the h flag for case fold- ing. ${original_recipient} This macro expands to the complete recipient address before any address rewriting or aliasing. A command-line argument that contains ${original_recipi- ent} expands to as many command-line arguments as there are recipients. This information is modified by the hqu flags for quoting and case folding. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.5. ${queue_id} This macro expands to the queue id. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.11. ${recipient} This macro expands to the complete recipient address. A command-line argument that contains ${recipient} expands to as many command-line arguments as there are recipients. This information is modified by the hqu flags for quoting and case folding. ${sasl_method} This macro expands to the name of the SASL authentication mechanism in the AUTH command when the Postfix SMTP server received the message. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. ${sasl_sender} This macro expands to the SASL sender name (i.e. the original submitter as per RFC 4954) in the MAIL FROM com- mand when the Postfix SMTP server received the message. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. ${sasl_username} This macro expands to the SASL user name in the AUTH com- mand when the Postfix SMTP server received the message. This feature is available as of Postfix 2.2. ${sender} This macro expands to the envelope sender address. By default, the null sender address expands to MAILER-DAE- MON; this can be changed with the null_sender attribute, as described above. This information is modified by the q flag for quoting. ${size} This macro expands to Postfix's idea of the message size, which is an approximation of the size of the message as delivered. ${user} This macro expands to the username part of a recipient address. For example, with an address user+foo@domain the username part is user. A command-line argument that contains ${user} expands into as many command-line arguments as there are recipi- ents. This information is modified by the u flag for case fold- ing.

STANDARDS

RFC 3463 (Enhanced status codes)

DIAGNOSTICS

Command exit status codes are expected to follow the conventions defined in <sysexits.h>. Exit status 0 means normal successful comple- tion. In the case of a non-zero exit status, a limited amount of command out- put is logged, and reported in a delivery status notification. When the output begins with a 4.X.X or 5.X.X enhanced status code, the sta- tus code takes precedence over the non-zero exit status (Postfix ver- sion 2.3 and later). After successful delivery (zero exit status) a limited amount of com- mand output is logged, and reported in "success" delivery status noti- fications (Postfix 3.0 and later). This command output is not examined for the presence of an enhanced status code. Problems and transactions are logged to syslogd(8). Corrupted message files are marked so that the queue manager can move them to the corrupt queue for further inspection.

SECURITY

This program needs a dual personality 1) to access the private Postfix queue and IPC mechanisms, and 2) to execute external commands as the specified user. It is therefore security sensitive.

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS

Changes to main.cf are picked up automatically as pipe(8) processes run for only a limited amount of time. Use the command "postfix reload" to speed up a change. The text below provides only a parameter summary. See postconf(5) for more details including examples.

RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS

In the text below, transport is the first field in a master.cf entry. transport_destination_concurrency_limit ($default_destination_concur- rency_limit) Limit the number of parallel deliveries to the same destination, for delivery via the named transport. The limit is enforced by the Postfix queue manager. transport_destination_recipient_limit ($default_destination_recipi- ent_limit) Limit the number of recipients per message delivery, for deliv- ery via the named transport. The limit is enforced by the Post- fix queue manager. transport_time_limit ($command_time_limit) Limit the time for delivery to external command, for delivery via the named transport. The limit is enforced by the pipe delivery agent. Postfix 2.4 and later support a suffix that specifies the time unit: s (seconds), m (minutes), h (hours), d (days), w (weeks). The default time unit is seconds.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS

config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf con- figuration files. daemon_timeout (18000s) How much time a Postfix daemon process may take to handle a request before it is terminated by a built-in watchdog timer. delay_logging_resolution_limit (2) The maximal number of digits after the decimal point when log- ging sub-second delay values. export_environment (see 'postconf -d' output) The list of environment variables that a Postfix process will export to non-Postfix processes. ipc_timeout (3600s) The time limit for sending or receiving information over an internal communication channel. mail_owner (postfix) The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue and most Postfix daemon processes. max_idle (100s) The maximum amount of time that an idle Postfix daemon process waits for an incoming connection before terminating voluntarily. max_use (100) The maximal number of incoming connections that a Postfix daemon process will service before terminating voluntarily. process_id (read-only) The process ID of a Postfix command or daemon process. process_name (read-only) The process name of a Postfix command or daemon process. queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory. recipient_delimiter (empty) The set of characters that can separate a user name from its extension (example: user+foo), or a .forward file name from its extension (example: .forward+foo). syslog_facility (mail) The syslog facility of Postfix logging. syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output) The mail system name that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so that "smtpd" becomes, for example, "post- fix/smtpd". Available in Postfix version 3.0 and later: pipe_delivery_status_filter ($default_delivery_status_filter) Optional filter for the pipe(8) delivery agent to change the delivery status code or explanatory text of successful or unsuc- cessful deliveries.

SEE ALSO

qmgr(8), queue manager bounce(8), delivery status reports postconf(5), configuration parameters master(5), generic daemon options master(8), process manager syslogd(8), system logging

LICENSE

The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software. AUTHOR(S) Wietse Venema IBM T.J. Watson Research P.O. Box 704 Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA PIPE(8)